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A Grammar of Interlingua

Alexander Gode & Hugh Blair IALA 1951


Collateral Orthography


COLLATERAL ORTHOGRAPHY. - The following rules, not observed in the Interlingua-English Dictionary, yield a simplified system of equal standing with that outlined in the preceding paragraphs. All points not specifically covered below are to be kept unchanged; so for instance the treatment of unassimilated guest words whose orthography remains that used in the Interlingua-English Dictionary.

  1. Double letters representing a single consonant are simplified with the exception of ss. Note that the group cc before e, i, and y does not represent a single consonant. e.g. eclesia, aliterar, aducer, interogar (for ecclesia, alliterar, adducer, interrogar) but massa, transsubstantiation, accidente.
  2. The vowel y is replaced by i; e.g. tirano (for tyranno). The semi-consonant y remains unchanged; e.g. yak.
  3. The digraph ph is replaced by f; e.g. fonetic, emfatic (for phonetic, emphatic).
  4. The digraph ch, representing the sound of k, is kept only before e and i. Elsewhere it is replaced by c. e.g. cloric, Cristo (for chloric, Christo) but chimeric.
  5. The silent h after r and t is omitted; e.g. retoric, patetic (for rhetoric, pathetic).
  6. The letter j replaces g and gi to represent the sound of 'z' in 'azure.' e.g. sajo (for sagio).
  7. The suffix -age (also the sound group -age at the end of a word where it is not a suffix) is replaced by the form -aje; e.g. saje, coraje (for sage, corage). The suffix -isar is replaced by the form -izar. Its derivatives are likewise spelled with z. e.g. civilizar, civilization (for civilisar, civilisation).
  8. Final e is dropped after t preceded by a vowel except in words which have the stress on the third syllable from the end; e.g. animat, brevitat (for animate, brevitate) but composite. This rule applies likewise to final e after n, l, and r when these consonants are the collateral spelling for nn, ll, and rr; e.g. peren, bel, mel, il, bizar (for perenne, belle, melle, ille, bizarre). Note: Present-tense and imperative forms are not affected by this rule; pote, permite, etc. retain their final -e.
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