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A Grammar of Interlingua

Alexander Gode & Hugh Blair IALA 1951

Word Building - compounding

Technical prefixes

Compounding by means of prefixes - technical


The following technical prefixes are used to modify nouns and adjectives:

'not...; without . .., lacking ...' e.g.
esthesia > anesthesia
gnostic 'relating to knowledge' > agnostic
new formation:
nocive 'harmful' > anocive 'innoxious'
Note: The variant an- appears before h and vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms in- and non-.
  1. 'both, on both sides' e.g.
    bio- 'life' > amphibie 'amphibious'
  2. 'around, about' e.g.
    theatro 'theater' > amphitheatro 'amphitheater'
    new formation:
    nucleo 'nucleus' > amphinucleo [Biol.] 'amphinucleus'
'again' e.g.
baptismo 'baptism' > anabaptismo 'anabaptism'
new formation:
genese 'genesis' > anagenese [Physiol.] 'anagenesis'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym re-.
  1. 'off, away' e.g.
    geo- 'earth' > apogee 'apogean'
    new formation:
    trachea 'windpipe' > apotracheal
  2. [Chem.] 'formed from, related to' e.g.
    morphina 'morphine' > apomorphina 'apomorphine'
    new formation:
    quinina 'quinine' > apoquinina 'apoquinine'
  1. 'down, downwards' e.g.
    rhino- 'nose' > catarrhin [Zool.] 'catarrhine'
    new formation:
    phyllo- 'leaf' > cataphyllo [Bot.] 'cataphyll'
  2. 'against; reflected' e.g.
    -optro- > catoptric 'catoptric'
    new formation:
    acustica 'acoustics' > catacustica [Phys.] 'catacoustics'
Note: The variant cat- appears before h and vowels.
  1. 'through' e.g.
    metro 'measure' > diametro 'diameter'
    new formation:
    nodo 'knot' > dianodal [Math.]
  2. 'away, apart' e.g.
    stas- '(act of) standing' > diastase 'diastasis'
    new formation:
    magnetic > diamagnetic
Note: The variant di- appears before vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms trans- and per-.
'bad, badly, not well' e.g.
pepsia 'digestion' > dyspepsia
new formation:
genese 'genesis' > dysgenese 'difficulty in breeding, dysgenesis'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym mis-.
'outside, external' e.g.
derma (in compounds) 'skin' > ectoderma [Zool.] 'ectoderm'
new formations:
cornea 'cornea' > ectocornea
cranio 'cranium' > ectocranial
Note: The variant ect- appears before vowels. Cf. the nontechnical synonym extra-.
'in, into' e.g.
demo [Gr. Antiq.] 'demos' > endemia [Med.] 'endemic'
new formation:
derma > endermic [Med.]
Note: The variant em- appears before b, m, p, ph. Cf. the nontechnical synonym in-.
'within' e.g.
gamo- 'marriage' > endogame 'endogamous'
osmose 'osmosis' > endosmose 'endosmosis'
new formation:
phag- 'to eat' > endophage 'endophagous, eating fellow-tribesmen'
Note: The variant end- appears before vowels.
'within, inside' e.g.
-zoon 'animal' > entozoon 'entozoen, intestinal parasite'
new formation:
ot- 'ear' > entotic 'entotic, pertaining to the interior of the ear'
Note: The variant ent- appears before vowels.
'on, upon' e.g.
-tapho- 'tomb' > epitaphio 'epitaph'
new formation:
gastro 'abdomen, stomach' > epigastric
Note: The variant ep- appears before h and vowels.
'without, outside' e.g.
gamo- 'marriage' > exogame 'exogamous'
osmose 'osmosis' > exosmose 'exosmosis'
new formation:
phag- 'to eat' > exophage 'exophagous, practicing cannibalism outside the tribe'
Note: The variant ex- appears before vowels.
'over; beyond; too much' e.g.
critic 'critical' > hypercritic 'hypercritical'
tension > hypertension
new formation:
dimension > hyperdimensional
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym super-.
  1. 'below, beneath, under' e.g.
    derma > hypodermatic 'hypodermic'
    new formation:
    carpo- 'fruit' > hypocarpio 'hypocarp';
  2. 'to a lower degree; somewhat' e.g.
    troph- 'nourishment' > hypotrophia 'hypotrophy'
    new formation:
    esthesia > hypoesthesia
  3. [Chem.] 'indicating a lower state of oxidation, or a lower position in a series of compounds' e.g.
    phosphato 'phosphate' > hypophosphato 'hypophosphate'
    new formation:
    acide 'acid' > hypoacide 'hypeacid'
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym sub-.
  1. 'behind' e.g.
    carpo [Anat.] 'wrist, carpus' > metacarpo [Anat.] 'metacarpus'
    new formation:
    branchia [Zool.] 'gill, branchia' > metabranchial
  2. 'beyond, transcending, higher' e.g.
    physica 'physics' > metaphysica 'metaphysics'; new formation:
    mathematica 'mathematics' > metamathematica 'metamathematics'
  3. 'after, subsequent to' e.g.
    zoon > metazoon
    new formation:
    arthritis > metaarthritic
  4. [Chem.] 'designating derived, metameric or similar compounds' e.g.
    globulina [Biochem.] 'globulin' > metaglobulina 'metaglobulin'
    new formation:
    gelatina 'gelatin' > metagelatina 'metagelatin'
Note: The variant met- appears before vowels and h. Cf. the nontechnical synonyms trans- and ultra-.
  1. 'besides, alongside' e.g.
    site- 'food' > parasite 'parasitic'
    new formation:
    centro 'center' > paracentral
  2. 'amiss, faulty, wrong' e.g.
    -dox- 'opinion' > paradoxe 'paradoxical'
    new formation:
    -phem- 'voice' > paraphemia
  3. 'resembling; modification of' e.g.
    typhoide 'typhoid' > paratyphoide 'paratyphoid'
    new formation:
    physic 'physical' > paraphysic 'paraphysical'
Note: The variant par- appears before vowels and h.
'around, about' e.g.
metro 'measure' > perimetro 'perimeter'
new formation:
arteria 'artery' > periarterial
Note: Cf. the nontechnical synonym circum-.
'with, together; alike' e.g.
logos 'logos' > syllogisar 'to syllogize'
chrono- 'time' > synchrone 'synchronous'
phon- 'voice, sound' > symphone 'symphonicus'
new formation:
dactyl- 'finger' > syndactyle [Zool., Med.] 'syndactyl'
Note: Appears as syl- before 1; sym- before b, m, p, ph. Cf. the nontechnical synonym con-.
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