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Early Middle English for today

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Wordhord

a concise early Middle English to Modern English dictionary

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a- pref
forth, away
a_
unemphatic verbal prefix, as a rule only intensitive in meaning; in pronouns and participles, gives a sense of indefiniteness
abbot (abbud) n m
abbot
abbudisse n f abbess
abbotri_ce n nt abbey, office of an abbot
abbud ~isse ~ri_ce
PC1 abbot abbates abbodrice, PC2 abbot ~rice, Lmn abbod, Ch abbot, MED abbot abbod-ric(h)e
abu_ten (onbu_ten) prep/adv
about, around, on the outside; nearly, roundabout
a_bu_tan onbu_tan
PC1 abutan, PC2 abuton, Lmn abuten, AW abuten
adele n m
mud, filth
a_dela
Owl adel, MED adel(e)
adle n f/nt
illness, ailment, disease, infirmity
adlen v w tr/intr addle, make ill; ail, languish, be diseased
adlende n patient, sufferer
adliy` adj listless, ill
a_dl ~e ~ig` ~ian
Orm adle addledd, MED adl~e ~ig
~
afnen v w
accomplish, carry out, do, perform, fulfil; cause; endure, suffer;
iafnen hold, sustain
(g`e)aefnan (e)
a_gen adj
own
a_gen v ptpr; a_h a_hst, a_hte own, possess; owe; have to, ought
aht (aehte) n f property, possessions; ownership, control
a_gen, a_gan a_h/a_g a_hst a_gon a_hte a_hton, aeht ae_hte~
PC1 ahte/eahte, PC2 ahte, Orm ay`h`enn ah, ahhte, Lmn agen ah ahte ahten, ahte (ae), AW ahte, PH3 ey`te, SO owhen, MED aught
a_glaece n m
monster, demon, fiend, fierce combatant
a_glaek n nt misery, grief, oppression
a_glae_c`a (ae_~) a_glae_c` (a_)
MED e_gle_che
OE ag-la_c < ag? rel ON agi, ME awe?

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ak conj
but, nevertheless, moreover, however
ac
PC2 ac/oc, Orm acc, MED ac (ak)
aken v s6; o_k o_ken iaken
ache, suffer, feel pain
acan (o_ o_ a)
Lmn oc, AW aked`, Ch aken, MED aken o_k
aker (acres) n m
acre, field, crop, cultivation, arable land
akerman n farmer
aecer aecras aecermann
PC2 acer ~es, MED aker

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al adj
all, whole
alle pl all
alles adv completely
nalles adv not at all
alre gen pl of all
eall ~e ~es; ealre ~ fyrst/lae_st; nealles
PC2 al alle alrefyrst, Orm all alle allre laest, AW al alle
al n f
awl, spike
ael
AW eal eawles, Ch al, MED al
alen v s6; o_l o_len ialen
nourish, grow, produce
alan (o_ o_ a)
rel a_ld
a_ld adj; eld~er ~est
old
alder n m/nt; ~man elder, leader, civil or religious authority; chief-, arch-
alderdo_m n m superiority, pre-eminence
elde n f age, maturity; stage, period
elden v w delay; age, grow old
eldre n m sg/pl parent, older person
eald (a), ealdor ~do_m ~liċ ~mann, ield~o (y/e) ~ra ~est ~an
PC1 ylde, PC2 ald, Orm ald, elde, eldenn, elldre, Lmn ald, alder, eld(e)re, ealdren (ae), Ch o(o)ld elde, MED alder, elde, elden, eldre
MED has two separate entries - 1. alder n ~es pl - leader; prince, chieftain, elder; and 2. eldre n eldre/eldren pl - parent (21); older person (6), old person (3); 'parent' is only indicated in the latter, whereas 'parent' appears under both 'ealdor' and 'ieldra' in CH
ealdor parent, ancestor; master, lord, prince, king; source, origin, authority; primitive; life; age; eternity; ieldra ancestors

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ale n m/nt?
ale, beer
alehu_s n alehouse, pub
ealu (ealod`) ealuhu_s
PC1 alod`, Lmn ale, AW ale
aler n m
alder
alor (al[e]r)
Ch alder, MED alder (alre aller olr)

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a_n (a/an) indef, num, adj, pref
a, an; one; lone, single
a_nne (aenne) acc a, an; one
a_nes gen, adv one's; once
a_ne dat, adv alone
ana_n adv at once
a_niy` (ae) adj any
a_nlic (ae) adj unique, only
a_nnes n unity, agreement
a_nge adj sole, solitary
a_nunge adv entirely
na_n, na_nne, na_nes, naeniy` pron, adj no, none
for t`e na_nes (t`aem a_nes) adv for the occasion; on purpose, expressly; indeed; temporarily
aene adv once
a_n a_nne/ae_nne a_nes a_num a_ne, a_na, ae_nig`, a_n~li_c (ae_) ~nes, a_nga, a_nunga, na_n na_nne etc, for t`ae_m a_nes, ae_ne
PC1 an aenne anes ane, PC2 a onne nan, Orm a(n) aenne aness ane, nan ~ess, forr t`e naness, Lmn a(n) aenne (ane), Owl an anne ane, ene, Ch a(n) o(o)n n~, for the nones
acc forms are rare in PC2 and Orm outside pronouns; OE t`ae_m a_nes > eME t`e na_nes

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and conj
and
and (ond)
PC1 and, Orm annd
and~ pref
against, opposing; in return, back, re; facing, toward; completely, fully
andsaete adj/n repugnant, odious; hostile; adversary, enemy
andsweren v w answer
andward adj present, actual, existing; opposite
andfang andg`iet andsaca andsaec andswaru andweard andweorc andwi_s i.a.
MED an(d)-let and-seche an(d)swere an(d)-sete an(d)-weard an(d)-sweren
also - and~etten, ~fang, ~y`aeten, ~y`et, ~la_ng, ~lifen, ~sake, ~sac, ~werk, ~wi_s i.a.
ProtoG andi~ > OE and~, Du ont~, G ent~
ande n m
grudge, envy, enmity, malice, ill will
andful adj envious
anda
MED ond(e) ondful(e)
arfet` adj
difficult, laborious, hard
arfet`nes n hard work; hardship
earfot`(e) ~lic` ~nes
Orm arrfet`t`, AW e(a)ruet`, MED arved` ~nesse

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at prep, pref
at; by, with
aet
PC2 at (ae), Orm att
a_t` n m
oath
a_t`
PC2 at`es, Orm at`ess, AW ad` at`es
at`el (at`ele) adj
noble, aristocratic; excellent, splendid, fine
at`ele n nt nobility, breeding
at`eling n m prince, nobleman, chieftain
e_t`el n m/nt native land, homeland
aed`el~e (aed`el) ~u ~ing, e_t`el
Orm at`ell, Lmn ad`el, Owl at`ele, MED athel, ethel
ba_, ba_t`e num (n/adj/conj)
both
bey`en num/n both (males); pair, couple, duo
be_g`en ba_ ba_ beg`ra ba_m/bae_m, ba_ t`a_
PC1 bad`e, begen, PC2 bat`e, beien, Orm bat`e, ba bey`y`enn, Lmn ba beien, bad`e, AW bad`e, ba, Owl bot`e, bo, SO bot`e, Ch bothe, MED bothe, bo
ba_t`e is the most common form in eME; ba_ and bey`en are not found at all in Ch; bey`en was the masculine form in OE and was only used with two males

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baken v s6; bo_k bo_ken ibaken; ~ere ~estre
bake
bakern n nt bakery, bread shop
bacan (o_ o_ a) baec~ere ~estre ~ern
Orm bakenn, MED baken (o_ o_ a)
bak n nt
back
baec
PC1 baec, Orm bacc, AW bac, Ch bak
bale (balw~) n nt
evil, malice; misery
bealu beal(u)wes
Lmn balu baluwen, AW bale (balewe), Ch bale, MED bale
bane n m
slayer, murderer; bane
benn n f wound
bana
Lmn bane (o), AW bone, Ch bane
(i)bann (ban) n nt
edict, proclamation, summons, bann
bannen v s7; be_nn be_nnen ibannen summon, command, proclaim
g`ebann, bannan (e_o e_o a)
Lmn bannen (eo) bonneden, Owl banne, ibanned, MED ban, bannen

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bar adj
bare, open
baer
Lmn bare, AW bare, MED bar

1 2

be, bi_ prep
by, with, near, about, at, in, on, during, according to
umbe (imbe) prep, pref around, about
aefre umb hwi_le adv repeatedly
be (bi_/big`), ymbe (u/e)
PC1 ymbe, PC2 be/bi, um, Orm bi, umbe/ummbenn, Lmn bi, AW umbe(n), Ch be/by, MED umbe

1 2

baeh n m; baeges
ring, crown, necklace
boga n m bow, arch
bu_gen v s2; baeh bugen ibogen bow, bend, submit; turn, retreat, go; join
forbu_gen v decline, refrain
be_ag (h), bu_gan (e_a u o) for~, boga
PC1 bugon, Orm buy`h`enn for~ baeh, Lmn beh baey`es, boy`e, buy`en baeh, AW bohe, MED bei

1 2

baernen v w
burn
baernan
PC1 baernde, Orm baernen, AW bearne bearnde
baeten v s7; be_t be_ten ibaeten
beat, flog, whip, punish
be_atan (e_o e_o e_a)
Orm baetenn, AW beaten i~

1 2

bed n nt; beddes pl
bed
bedbu_r n nt bedroom
bedd ~es, bedbu_r
Orm bedd, Lmn bed bedde, Ch bed beddes

1 2

be_d n m
table
be_od
MED beode
be_den v s2; baed buden iboden
offer, bid, grant
bod n nt offer
abe_den v summon
bebe_den v ~end command, order; commit, entrust
bebe_dendlic adj commanding, imperative
bebod n command, order, injunction, decree
forbe_den v forbid
boden (i~) v w announce, proclaim, deliver message; preach; prophesy, presage, signify, portend, bode
ibod, boding n message, precept, preaching
bode n m messenger, herald, prophet
bodend n m teacher, preacher
foreboden v forebode
be_odan a~ be~ for~ (e_a u o), bebe_odend ~lic, (g`e)bodian fore~, boda, bodiend, bod be~ g`e~, bodung
PC1 bodian, Orm bede baed forr~, Lmn beoden baed iboden, bodien, MED be_den, boden
be_den > ModE bid (offer) as in "I bid at the auction"
be_odan command, decree, summon; announce, declare
be_r n m
beer
be_or
MED be_r

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bergen v s3; barh burgen iborgen
save, preserve, protect
iberh (g) n nt; ~lae_s adj refuge, safety, protection, defence
iberglic adj safe, prudent
herberh n harbour, shelter; lodgings, quarters
biry`en (be~) v w bury, entomb
biry`e n m protector; surety, bail
burh (g) n f; burges pl town, city; fort, stronghold
burhle_d n m citizen
burhstede n m city; castle
haefedburh n capital city
beorgan (ea u o), g`ebeorg ~lic` here-beorg, (be)byrg`an (ig`), byrg`a, burg (h) byr(i)g`, burg~le_od ~stede, he_afodburh
PC1 byrigde bebyrged, PC2 burch, byrieden bebyried, Orm bery`h`enn borry`h`enn, herrberry`h`e, berrhless, burrh burry`h`ess, birry`enn, Lmn herbery`e, burh bury`es, burien, AW herbearhe, burhen iborhen, burh, MED berwen (bergen/bery`en) herberwe, bergles, burgh, birien

1 2

berh (g) n m; berges pl
mountain, hill, mound
beorg (h)
Lmn berhy`e beory`en, MED bergh (bery`/beregh)
bern n m
man, male, soldier, hero
beorn
Lmn be(o)rn, MED bern

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be_t n nt; ~ing
threat, boast
be_ten v w threaten, vow, boast
(g`e)be_ot ~ian ~ung
Lmn beot i~ beoteden, MED beot i~ beotien
beren v s4; bar baeren iboren
bear, carry; bring forth, produce
forberen v forbear, abstain, refrain, spare
baer n f bier, carriage for corpse, hearse; portable bed
ibaere n f/nt behaviour; outcry, clamour, commotion
ibaeren v w behave
baern (barn) n m child, bairn
barm n m lap; bosom
bird n f/nt birth, lineage, descent, birthplace; nature, quality, rank
birle n m cupbearer, wine waiter, sommelier
birt`en n f burden, duty; child
bore suff, n m bearer; ruler
beran (ae ae_ o) for~, bae_r, g`ebae_r~u (e_) ~an, bearn, bearm, g`ebyrd ~daeg`, byrele, byrt`en, bora
PC2 bar baeron (for)baren byrt`en, Orm berenn barr baere borenn baere baern barrness birde birrless, Lmn beares baere barme bearm be(a)rn birles, AW bere bearm bearnes burde, Owl (i)bere, Ch bere(n) bar baren (e) ybor(e)n beere birthe barm, MED beren be_r be_ren barn/ba_rn barm birle birthen bore
bernen v s3 intr; barn burnen ibornen
burn (up)
biernan (a u o)
Lmn bernen burne, Owl berne

1 2

bey`en v w tr/refl
bend, bow, flex; stoop, weaken, give way; turn, turn back, incline
forbey`en abase, humiliate, degrade; depreciate; bow down
bi_eg`an forbig`an
AW beien beide, MED beien
bi_den v s1; ba_d biden ibiden
stay, continue, remain
abi_den v abide, wait, await, expect; delay; survive
ibi_den v experience, undergo
bi_d n nt halt, hesitation, delay
bi_dan (a_ i i) a_~ g`e~, bi_d
PC1 biden, Orm bad, Ch byde bood, MED bi_de
bidden v s5; bad baeden ibeden
pray, request, beseech, exhort
baeden v w compel, impel; oppress
bede, ibed n f; nt prayer, bead
biddan (ae ae_ e), bae_dan, bedu g`ebed
PC1 bidde baed beaden, Orm bidden badd baede bedenn, bede bedess, Lmn bidden bad beden, bede beden, Ch bedes, MED ibede, bed(e)
ModE bid (pray) as in "I bid thee good night"
bi_nden v s3; ba_nd bu_nden ibu_nden
bind, tie, restrain; imprison
ibi_nd n nt binding, fastening
bend n f bond, fetter, shackle
bindan (a u u), g`ebind, bend
PC1 bendas, Orm bindenn band bundenn, Lmn binden ibundene, bende, AW ibunden, Ch bynde bond ybounden, MED bi_nden, bi_nd(e), bend(e)
bisen (bisne) n f/nt
example, pattern, model
forebisen n parable, proverb; archetype
bisnen (bisen~) v w symbolise, exemplify
bisen(e) ~ian (bysnian)
Orm bisne, Lmn bisne, AW bisne fore~, Owl uorbisne, MED bisnen
blo_d n nt; ~iy` adj
blood
blo_dgen (blo_diy`en) make bloody
blo_d ~ig`, blo_dgian (blo_deg`ian)
Orm blod, Lmn blod, AW blod, MED blo_d, blo_deke
~

1 2

bo_k n f/nt; ~es (be_c) pl
book
bo_kere n m author, writer; scholar
bo_kstaf n m letter, character
bo_ken v w book, reserve; grant by charter
bo_c ~ere ~staef, be_c, bocian
PC1 bokes/bec, Orm boc boke, AW bokes
bold n nt
castle, mansion, abode
bold
Lmn bold, AW bold
bord n nt
table, board, plank, shield; meal
innenbordes adv at home
u_tenbordes adv abroad
he_hbord n head table
cuppebord n cupboard
bord innan~es u_tan~es
Orm bord, Ch bord, MED bord, cuppe-~ 1375
brekenv s4; brak braeken ibroken
break
braec n nt (brice m) breach, fracture, breaking, destruction; clearing
brok n nt fragment
brecan (ae ae_ o), brae_c (g`e)bryce, broc
PC2 braecon, Orm brekesst bracc, AW breken ibroken, Owl breche, MED brech(e) briche
bre_st n m/f
chest, breast
bre_ost
Orm brest, Lmn breoste, Ch bre(e)st
briht (berht) adj
bright
brihten v w cleanse, clarify, illuminate, brighten
brey`den v s3; bray`d bruy`den ibroy`den flash, dart, move quickly; twist, braid, embroider; pull, lift, brandish
abrey`den v wake, start
beorht (bryht) ~ian, breg`den (ae u o) a~
PC1 gebroiden, Orm brihht, Lmn briht, breiden braid (ae) brudden ibroiden, AW briht brihted`, breiden ibroiden
bringen v w irr; brohte
bring
bringan bro_hte
PC2 brohte, Orm brinnget`t`, AW bringen, Owl broy`te
~

1 2

brok n nt
affliction, misery, trouble, strife, adversity; disease, infirmity
broken v w crush, hurt, afflict, molest
broclic adj miserable, adverse, hard
broc ~ian ~lic
AW brokes, MED brok

1 2 3

bro_t`er n m nom/gen
brother
bret`re pl brothers
bro_t`or (g`e)bro_t`or/bro_t`ru bre_t`er
PC1 brod`er bred`re, Orm brot`err bret`re, Lmn brot`er ~en (~es), Ch bretheren/brotheres
bru_ken v s2; braek bruken ibroken
enjoy, use, employ, brook
bru_can (ae_ u o) bru_cet`/bry_ct`
Orm brukenn ~et`t`, Lmn bruken ~ed`, MED brouken
bru_n adj
brown, dusky, dark, swarthy; shiny
bru_nfa_h adj burnished
bru_n ~fa_g
MED broun (brun)
bu_en v w
dwell, inhabit, occupy; cultivate
bu_r n nt dwelling, apartment, chamber, room
ibu_r n m peasant, farmer
ne_hibu_r n neighbour
bu_an, bu_r g`e~, ne_ahg`ebu_r
PC1 nehhebura, Orm bure, Lmn bur, AW bur, nehbur, Ch bour, neighebore
bufen adv/prep
above
abufen adv above, aloft, on high
bufan on ~ a~
Orm bufenn, AW buuen a~, MED boven above(n)
rel ufen
~

1 2

burn n m
brook, stream; spring, well
burn (~e ~a)
Owl burne, MED bourn(e)
biggen (biy`en) v w irr; bigge biggeth, bohte
buy, purchase, acquire
abiggen v redeem; requite; execute
bebiggen v sell
forbiggen v buy off, bribe; ransom
bycgan a~ be~ bycge byg`et` bohte
PC2 bohton, Orm biggen bigget` bohhte, AW buggen bud`, Ch byeth, MED bi_en for~
bycgan ransom, redeem
~
bire n m
occasion, time
biren v w intr happen; belong, befit; behove, be necessary
byre byrian
Orm birrt` birrd~e ~enn, MED biren

1 2

birne (briniy`e) n f
armour, coat of mail, corselet, byrnie
byrne,
brynja
PC2 bryniges, Lmn burne (brunie), AW brunie, MED brinie
candel n f
candle, lamp
candelbore n acolyte
candel
PC2 candles, Ch candel
care n m
care, concern; sorrow, vexation, distress, anxiety
caren v w intr care, be anxious, grieve
caru ~ian
Orm kare, Ch care careth
caep n m
purchase, sale, trade, bargain
caepen v w trade, buy, bargain
caeping n f trade, business
caephu_s n nt department store
caepman n trader, merchant
caepsto_w n market
caepstre_t n f high street, shopping strip
caeptu_n, caept`orp n m shopping mall
caepy`e_ld n nt price
ci_pen v w sell
c`e_ap ~man ~sto_w ~ġield ~ung ~ian, cy_pan
Lmn cheap, AW chap (ea) cheped` chepinge, MED chep ~en chap-man
ce_sen v s2; caes curen icoren (chusen ichosen)
choose
kire n m choice
kiriy` n f chooser
kist n f choicest one, top pick, best; free will; virtue
c`e_osan (e_a u o), cyre cyrig`e, cyst
PC1 cesen coren (s), PC2 cuson cosan, Orm chesesst chaes chosenn, Lmn chaes curen (i)coren (chosen), cure, custe, AW chesen icorene, Owl custe, SO chese ycore, MED kire (cyre)
ce_se (ci_se) n m
cheese
c`i_se (ae_/e_/y_)
PC1 ceose, PC2 caese, LHchese, Ch chese, MED che_se
ceste (cist) n f
chest, trunk, box, casket; coffin; basket
cist (e/y)
PC2 caeste, Lmn cheste, Ch cheste (i), MED chest(e)
cester n f
town, fort
cesterware n m/f citizen
c`easter ~waran ~ware
Orm chesstre, MED chestre
ModE Man-chester, Ro-chester, Win-chester etc
ci_ld n nt
child
cildre n pl children
ci_lden v w give birth, birth
ci_ldha_d n childhood
c`ild ~ru ~an ~ha_d
PC2 cild, Orm child chilldre childenn, MED chi_ld
vowel lengthening before 'ld' (but not 'ldr') in late OE
e
circe (cirice) n f
church
c`iric`e (y)
PC1 circe, PC2 cyrce cyricen, Orm kirrke, AW chirche, Ch chirche
cirkel n m
circle; cycle, zodiac
cirkelwirde n m computer, mathematician
circul, circolwyrde
MED cercle
icnerd adj; ~nes
eager, zealous, diligent, studious
cnerdlaecen v w toil, slog, exert, plug away, be diligent
g`ecneord (g`e)cneord~lic` ~nes ~lae_can
~
corn n nt
grain
morgencorn cereal
corn
PC2 corn, Orm corn, Lmn corn
e.g. wheat, barley, rye, oats etc
craft n m; ~iy` adj
skill, ability, trade, art, craft; strength
craftige n m craftsman
he_hcraftige n m architect
craeft ~iga he_ahcraeftiga
PC1 craeftes, Orm crafft, Ch craft
cumen v s4 irr; co_m co_men icumen
come
cume n m visitor
co_me (kime) n m coming, advent
acumen v come forth; bear, bring; endure, withstand
ancumen, to_cumen v arrive
becumen v approach, enter, eventuate
acumendlic adj possible; tolerable
cuman (o_ o_ u) an~ a_~ to_~ cumet`/cymt`, cuma, cyme
PC2 cumen com comen, Orm cum(m)enn cumet`t` comm comenn, come, Lmn cumen com comen, kime/cume, AW cume, Owl kume, Ch com(e)th cam/co(o)m co(o)me(n), come, MED comen a~ acumendlice, come
cam first appears 1225 Vices & V.
cunnen v ptpr; can canst, cu_t`e icu_t`
know, know how to, be acquainted with
oncunnen v ptpr accuse, blame, reproach
cna_wen v s7; cne_w cne_wen icna_wen know, recognise, perceive
cunnen v w; cunnet` test, try, investigate
forcunnen v w tempt
cu_t` adj known, familiar
forcu_t`, fraket` adj vile, wicked, obscene
cu_t`e n m/f acquaintance; client, customer
ke_ne adj keen, bold, sharp, pungent
ki_t` n f; ki_t`t`e ~s kinship, relationship; kinsmen, kith, family; home, familiar territory, homeland
onki_t` n grief
ki_t`en (i~) v w; ki_t`ede (kidde) acquaint, make known, announce, proclaim; testify, confess
iki_t`nes n f testament, testimony, knowledge, acquaintance
cunnan on~ cann canst cunnon cu_d`e, ce_ne, cy_d`d` (~u) on~, (g`e)cy_d`an cy_dde, (g`e)cy_d`nes, cna_wan (e_o e_o a_), cunnian for~, for-cu_t` fracod` (~ed`/ed), cu_da
PC1 gecydde, PC2 can cunnen cut`e, Orm cunnenn cann cannst cut`e cut`enn, kene, kit`en kiddenn, cnawenn cnew, cunnenn cunnet`t`, Lmn cud`d`e icud/icud`, cnowed` cneowe, kene, AW cud`d`e icud(d)/icud`d`et, cnawen, kene, Ch can canst cunne/conne couthe/coude, cunnid` cunnede, MED connen, kitthe ki_then iki_thnesse, cunnen, fraked
OE cennan - make known > Lmn kennen, AW kennid`
~

1 2

cwaed adj
bad, wrong, wicked, poor quality; evil, harm; dung, muck
cwaedhaefed n aching head
cwaedy`aer n unlucky year
cwe_ad
Lmn cued, AW cweade
cwe_me adj
pleasant, agreeable
cwe_men v w satisfy, gratify
(g`e)cwe_me cwe_man
Orm cwemenn cwemmdenn (to)cweme, Lmn queme, AW icweme, Ch quemen
cwet`en (i~) v s5; cwat` (d) cwaet`en (d) icwet`en (d)
say, speak, settle, resolve
forecwe_t`en adj afore-mentioned
cwide n m speech, saying, phrase
icwide n sentence, decree
(g`e)cwet`an (ae ae_ e), cwide g`e~
PC1 cwed`e cwaed/cwaed`, Orm cwat`t`, Lmn quad`/quaed qued`en iqued`en, AW cwed`en cwed` cweden
cwild n m/f/nt
destruction, death, pestilence
cwild
MED quel(le)
~
day` n m; day`es (dages) pl
day
dagen v w dawn, grow light
aday` adv in daytime, during the day
to_day` adv today
day`hwamlic adj daily
day`mael n m clock
do_ger n m/nt day
daeg` dagas ~mae_l, dagian, do_gor (er)
PC2 daei/dei daeies, Orm day`y` day`y`es/day`h`ess, day`y`whammlike, AW dei dahes, Ch day dayes/dawes, MED 1200 daihwamlice
Mo_nen~day`, Ti_wes~, Wo_dnes~, T`unres~, Friy`e~, Satern~, Sunnen~
dael n m
part, share, deal, portion, allotment, division
daelen (to_~) v w share, distribute, deal out, divide
bedaelen v deprive
ida_l n nt parting, separation
aelcdael adv entirely
sumdael adv somewhat
dae_l, dae_lan be~ g`e~ to_~, g`eda_l, sumdae_l
PC1 dael, PC2 to daelde (e), sum del, Orm del dale todaelenn, Lmn daele dale, to-daelen, Owl echdel, MED de_len (dae_len), to_~
daet` n m
death
daed adj dead
dey`en v w to die
de_at`, de_ad
PC1 dead`, daed, PC2 ded, Orm daet`, daed, dey`enn, Lmn daed`, daed, deiy`en, AW deien, Ch deye(n) (dyen)
ON deyja
do_ v irr; dide ido_n
do, make; put
bedo_n v defile, befoul
fordo_n v ruin, destroy
misdo_n v transgress, err, sin, do harm
ofdo_n v remove, cancel
de_d n f deed, act, action, achievement
oferde_d n indulgence, lack of restraint
do_m n m, suff judgement, sentence, ordeal; state, ~dom
de_me n m judge
de_men v w judge, deem
forde_men v convict, condemn
do_n be~ for~ mis~ of~, de_t`/do_t` dyde g`edo_n, dae_d (e_) mis~, do_m, de_ma, de_man for~
PC2 don mis~ for~ dide (y), daedes, Orm don missdot` didenn, dede, dom, deme demenn demmd, AW ded, dom, deme demen demde, Ch do(n) doth mis~, de(e)de, do(o)m, demen
~
drake n m
dragon, sea monster
draca
Orm drake, Lmn drake, AW drake
draem n m
joy, festivity, merriment; music, singing
draemere n m musician
dre_am ~ere ~liċ ~~nes ~craeft
Orm draem, Lmn draem, AW dream
dreccen v w irr; drahte
injure, afflict; postpone, delay
drec`c`an dreahte
PC1 gedreht, Lmn idraht/idrecched, Ch drecche drecched, MED drecchen (idraht)
dri_fen v s1; dra_f drifen idrifen
drive, chase, pursue
dri_fan (a_ i i)
PC1 draf, Orm drifenn drifet`t` draf, AW driuen draf driuen idriuen
dre_sen v s2; draes druren idroren
fall, decline, fail; perish
dre_r n m/nt blood
dre_riy` adj sad; cruel, grievous; bloody
drismen v w become gloomy
dre_osan (ea_ u o), dre_or ~ig`, drysmian
Orm dreriy` (eo), Lmn drese, AW dreori, MED dre_sen (y-drore), dre_ri_
drinken v s3; drank drunken idrunken
drink
adrinken v drown
bedrinken v absorb
fordrunken adj/p ptc drunk, sozzled, inebriated
drunken-wille adj drunkard, alcoholic
drencen v w drench, submerge
fordrencen v w intoxicate, make drunk; ply with drink
drinc (drink) n m drink, beverage
drinchu_s n nt drinking house, tavern, bar
drinc(a) drincan (a u u) a_~ be~, drenc`an, drenc`hu_s, drync` (e)
Orm drinnkenn drannc drunnkenn, drinnch/drinnke, Lmn drinches, AW drinken adronc fordrunke drunc-wile, drunch, MED drink(e), drinch(e)
~
driht n f, pref
company, band of retainers, army; multitude, nation; lordly, splendid
drihten n m Lord, chief; ruler, prince
drihtlic adj lordly, noble, high-ranking
dre_gen v s2; draeh drugen idrogen undergo, experience, endure, suffer; perform
dryht ~lic, dryhten, dre_ogan (ea u o) dri_ht`/dre_oget`
PC2 Drihten, Orm drihhtin drey`h`enn, Lmn driht ~liche Drihten driy`en (g)
dugen v ptpr; daeh daeht, dohte
avail, be useful, be worthy, be strong
dohtiy` adj doughty, worthy, valiant, intrepid
dugan de_ah de_aht dohte, dohtig` (y)
Orm daeh, duhhtiy`, Lmn duy`ende, duhti, AW duhen de(a)h, duhti
dure n f
door, gate
duru
Lmn dure, PM 1250 dure, Ch dore
~
aed n nt
prosperity
aediy` adj happy, fortunate
e_ad ~ig`
Orm aediy`, Lmn eadi, AW eadi
aela_ interj
alas, oh, woe
e_ala_
BH Eala, MED eala_
aer prep, adv, pref
before, ere; beforehand, had; ancient, former
aerlic adj; ~li_ce adv early
aerre adj, adv earlier
aerest adj, adv first
ae_r ~ra ~est ~or ~ost ~lic`
PC1 aer, Orm aer, Lmn aer, AW ear ~lice
aerd n m
land, homeland, country
aerden (on~) v w dwell, inhabit
eren v w plough, cultivate
eard ~ian, erian
PC1 aerde, Orm aerd, Lmn aerd, aerien, AW eard, erede, MED eren
aere n nt
ear
e_a_r(e)
Orm aere, AW eare, Ch ere

1 2

aernen v w
earn
earnian
Lmn iaerned, AW earnin, MED e_rnen
aern n m
eagle
earn
Orm aern, Lmn erne, MED e_rn
aest n/adj/adv; ~erne ~ward
east
aestan adv from the east
e_ast ~an ~erne ~ward
PC1 aest (ea), Orm aest, Lmn aest
aestre n nt
Easter
e_astre e_astron
PC2 Estren, Lmn aestre, AW easter
aew n f
law, testament, marriage
aewbraec (~bryc) n adultery
aewbreke n adulterer
aewfast adj pious, devout
aewlic adj legal
aewnen v w marry
sinderaew n privilege
ae_(w) ae_w~brae_c ~breca ~faest ~lic ~nian synderae_
PC1 aewe aeuestlice, Orm ae, AW eawbruche
ece n m
ache, pain
ece (ae)
AW eche, TH eche, Ch ache, MED ache (ece)
rel aken; lME ake is remodeled on aken
e_ce adj; ~lic
eternal, perpetual, durable
a_, ay` adv ever, forever, always
na_ adv, conj never, not, not at all; no
aefre (aefer) adv ever, always
naefre adv never
aefre aelc, aefric adj, pron every; everyone
e_c`~e ~elic ~nes, a_ (a_wa), na_, ae_fre n~
PC1 ece, PC2 na, aeure n~ aeuer, aeuric, Orm eche, a ay`y`, na, aefre, Lmn a, na ~t`ing, aeuere n~, euer aelche, AW eche, aa ai, na ~t`ing, eauer n~, eu(e)rich, Ch ay
ON ei
e_fen (aefen) n m
eve, evening
e_fenmete n evening meal, dinner
ae_fen (e_)
PC1 aefen, Orm efenn, AW euen, MED e_ven
e_ge (aege) n nt; e_gen pl
eye
day`es e_ge n daisy
e_age e_agan (e_) daeg`es-~
Orm ey`h`e ~ss/ey`h`ne, Lmn ey`enen, AW ehe ehnen, Owl ey`e ey`ene, Ch eye eyghen (y)
egge n f
edge
ecg
Orm egge, Lmn egge, AW egge
ehte num
eight
ehtete_ne num; ehtete_nt`e ord eighteen
ehtetiy` num; ehtetiget`e ord eighty
ehtet`e ord eighth
eahta ~-ti_ene (hund)~tig` ~te_od`a, eahtod`a
PC1 aehte, Orm ehhte, Lmn aehte ehtetene, AW eihtud`e, PH3 ey`te ~tent`e, TH egted`e, GC 1300 eiy`te~tene ~ty ~t`e ~tet`e, SL 1300 eiy`teteot`e, GC 1325 eiy`tet`e eiy`tetet`e, WB 1425 eiy`tetithe, MED eighte ~-te_ne ~ti_ ~the ~-tenthe ~-tithe
no entry in Clark-Hall or Boswell Toller for OE *eahtatigod`a
e_k (aek) adv
also, likewise, and
e_ken v w, adj increase, augment, add, accrue, eke out; great, pregnant
to_e_ken adv/prep besides, moreover, also, in addition
wastem n m/nt fruit, growth, offspring
wastembaere adj fruitful
waxen v s7; we_x we_xen iwaxen grow
fulwaxen n, adj adult, grown-up
e_ac (e_c) ~an to_e_acan, waestm ~bae_re, weaxan (e_o e_o ea) ful~
PC1 eac, westmas (ae), waex, Orm ec ekenn, wasstme, wax(x)enn wex waxenn full~, Lmn aec/eke aechen, wastmes, waxen weoxen iwaxen, Ch ek(e)/eek eched, MED e_k e_ken, wastme, waxen

1 2

el pref
foreign, strange
el~
MED el-
ele n m
oil, holy oil
ele
Orm ele, MED ele
ellen n nt
courage, valour, strength, zeal
ellen
Orm ellenlaes

1 2

ende n m
end, boundary
enden v w end, finish; destroy
at ende adv finally
end~e ~ian
PC2 enden, Orm ende endenn, MED end~e ~en
~end suff
doer, one who, ~er, ~or
~ende pr ptc doing, ~ing
~end ~ende
MED -ende
Haelend, Scapend, De_mend etc
erl n m
nobleman, earl, count; warrior
eorl
PC2 eorl, Orm eorless, SO erl
ert`e n f
earth
ert`tilt` n f agriculture
eort`e eort`lic`
PC2 ert`e, Orm e(o)rt`e ert`~lic ~liy` ~like, Lmn eord`e eord`lic
e_w interj
alas, oh, woe
e_ow
-ern suf
place, house, -ery, -ern
arn n nt dwelling, house, building, store, closet
aern (earn) baecern ha_ligern su_d`erne
MED ern bak~ breu~ hed~ sheu~ slep~
eten v s5; at aeten ieten
eat
etan (ae ae_ e) etet`/et
PC2 aeten eten, Orm etenn, Ch eten
etten v w
graze, browse, pasture
andetten v acknowledge, admit, praise; confess, promise, vow
ettan and~ (ond~)
e_wen v w
show, display, reveal
ate_wen v point, indicate
i_ewan at~ ot`~
PC2 atywede, BH aeteowden, MED atewien
fa_ (i~) n m, adj; fa_n pl
foe, enemy; hostile, inimical, feuding
faeht` n f hostility, enmity, feud
fa_h (g`e)fa_, g`efa_ ~n, fae_ht`
Lmn ifa ~n, AW fa fan i~, Owl fo, Ch fo(o) foos/fo(o)n, MED fo
fader n m nom/gen
father
faeder
PC1 faeder, Orm faderr, SO fader
mi_n fader hu_s - my father's house; VV 1225 faderes pl
fa_h adj; fa_ge w/pl
dappled, variegated, spotted, streaked; adorned, decorated
fa_g (h)
Lmn fah uay`e, MED fou
fallen v s7; fell fellen ifallen; be~
fall
fell n m fall, slaughter
fellen v w fell, cut down, kill; attack
feallan (e_o e_o ea), fiell ~an
Orm fallenn fellenn, Lmn fallen feol ~len, fellen feolde
faren v s6; fo_r fo_ren ifaren
go, travel, fare, proceed, undergo; act; exist, happen
afaren v depart
skifaren v ski
far n nt vessel
fare n f; suff m expedition, procession; farer
faret` n m/nt current, stream; shore
fe_re n m comrade, companion, associate
fe_ren v w go, set out, march, proceed; behave, act
fort`fe_ren v depart, die
ife_ren v reach, accomplish
ife_re adj/n accessible; company, community
wordes ife_re n adverb
fe_rend n messenger, sailor
ferd n f army; military campaign
feren v w (fery`~) ferry, carry, transport
fo_r n f journey, voyage
ford n m ford, waterway
faran (o_ o_ a) faer -fara faru farot`, g`efe_re, (g`e)fe_ra, fe_r~an ~end, fierd, ferian ferode, fo_r, ford
PC1 ferode, PC2 faren, ferde, faerd, Orm farenn forenn, fere, ferd, Lmn foren, uerien ferede, AW fere, ferd, SO y-fere, Cl 1380 feryed, MED ferien
fast adj; ~e adv
firm, fixed, secure
fasten v w; n nt fast, abstain; retreat, safety
fastnen v w fasten, secure, confirm
onfast prep, adv close
faest ~an ~e ~en, faestnian
PC2 faeston, faestned, Orm onnfasst, fasste, fesstnenn, Lmn faste, fastnede, MED fast, faste(n), fastnen
fele adj, adv
much, many, a lot
fille n f fill, plenty, sufficiency, abundance; impregnation
fillen v w fill, replenish, satisfy, complete, fulfill
oferfille n surfeit
ifillednes n f fulfilment, completion
filst n m/f aid, assistance
folgen (filgen, fullga_n) v w follow, pursue
folget` n m following, retinue; pursuit, office, service
ful adj; ~le w/pl full
fultum n m help, protection, grace
fultumen, filsten, fullaesten v w help, support, comfort, abet
fela (feolu), fyllo (fyllu), fyll~an (g`e)~ednes, fylst ~an, folgian fylgan (fylig`an) full-ga_n, folgot`, full (ful), fullae_stan, fultum ~ian
PC1 fela, fylden, fylste, PC2 ful, folecheden, Orm fele, fillenn, folly`h`enn, full, Lmn feole, fulste ~n, foly`en, fultume, AW feole, fulst, folhen, ful, Owl fele, MED fillen, filsten, fultum
fe_len v w; fe_l(e)de ife_l(e)d
feel
folm n f palm, hand
fe_lan, folm(e)
AW felde, Ch feeled/felte feltest felten feled/felt, MED fe_len, folm

1 2

feh n nt; feges
money, remuneration
fehhu_s n nt bank
fehceste n f cash register, checkout
fehha_ldend n m cashier
fehsarwe n nt ATM, teller machine
feoh fe_os fe_o, feohhu_s
PC1 feo(h), Orm Orm fehh fe, Lmn feoh feo, AW feh, MED fe_
feoh cattle, goods; property, estate; tenure, feudal obligation; feohhu_s treasure house
fe_nd n m
fiend, enemy
fe_gen v w (fe_n) hate, persecute
fe_ond fi_end, fe_ogan (fe_on)
PC1 feond, Orm fend, Lmn feond ~es, Ch feend ~es

1 2

fer adj, adv; ferr~e ~er ~est
far; afar
ferren adv; v w from afar; remove, avert, take away
firlen adj; n nt distant, remote; distance
feorr, feorran, fyrlen
Orm ferr, Lmn feor, AW feor, Ch fer, MED fer ferren
ferh n m/nt; ferges (feres)
life, soul, spirit; person
ferht` n m/nt mind, intellect
feorh (g) feores, ferhd` (y), fi_ras
Lmn uore, MED fere furth
length of vowel in gen and dat cases in OE is uncertain; Bosworth & Toller indicates short vowel
fi_f num
five
fifte_ne num; fifte_nt`e ord fifteen
fiftiy` num; fiftiget`e ord fifty
fifte ord fifth
fi_f ~ta ~ti_ene ~tig` ~te_od`a ~teogod`a (~tiged`a)
PC1 fif ~tig, Orm fif fif(f)te fifftiy`, Lmn fif ~te ~ten(e) ~ti, Ch fyue fif~t(h)e ~tene ~ty, TH 1200 fiftuged`e, LH 1225 fifteoy`ad`e, GC 1325 viftet`e, WB 1382 fiftenthe fiftythe, MED five (fif) fif-te_ne ~ti_ ~te -te_nthe ~ti_th(e)
fi_nden v s3; fa_nd fu_nden ifu_nden
find, discover; obtain, provide
-finde adj locatable
ifa_nden v w test, experience, search out
fu_nden v w strive, desire, head to
fe_t`e n m, nt infantry, troops; gait, locomotion
fu_s adj eager, ready, hastening
fi_sen (i~) v w impel, banish, drive away
fi_ndan (a u u), fynde, g`efandian, fundian, fe_d`a, fe_d`e, fu_s fy_s~an ~ian
PC2 finden fand, Orm findenn finnt fand fundenn, Lmn finden fond funden, Ch fynde(n) fo(o)nd founde(n)
first n m/nt
period, respite, space of time
afirst adv later, after a time
first (y/e)
PC2 fyrst, Orm fresst, Lmn feorst firste, AW first, PM afirst

1 2

fle_n (fle_hen) v s2; fle_ fle_t` (fle_he fle_ht`); flaeh flugen iflogen (fledde ifled)
flee, escape
flaem n m flight, escape
fle_me n m fugitive
fle_men (i~) v w expel, put to flight, rout
fle_on fly_ht`/fle_(h)t` (e_a u o), fle_am, fli_ema, (g`)fli_eman
PC2 fleh flugen, flemden, Orm fle(o)n fleot` (att)flaeh fluy`henn, flemmde, Lmn fleon flict` flaeh fluy`en ifloy`en, flaem, flemen flemede, AW fleo(n) fleah fluhen iflohen, fleme, Ch fleen fleigh/fledde
fledde first appears in a1325(c1250) Gen. & Ex.
fle_gen v s2; flaeh flugen iflogen
fly
fle_ge n f fly
fliy`e, fliht n m flight
fliy`ehafen n f airport
fliy`ete_h n m; ~te_ges aeroplane
floge n m flyer; fugitive
fle_ogan (e_a u o), fle_oge, flyht, flyg`e, floga
Orm fley`henn fley`het`t` flaeh, Lmn fliy`ed` fleah fluy`en floy`en, fley`en, AW flihd`, flehen, Ch flyes
flo_d n m
flood, wave, flow, tide, stream, current, sea
flo_wen v s7; fle_w fle_wen iflo_wen flow
flo_d, flo_wan (e_o e_o o_)
PC1 flod, Orm flod, flowenn flowedd, Lmn flod, AW flowen fleaw

1 2

1 2

fo_n v s7 irr; fo_ fo_t`, fe_ng fe_ngen ifangen
seize, grasp
onfo_n, underfo_n v; onfo_nd n m receive
feng n m grip, grasp; booty, catch
andfang (~feng) n m acceptance, receipt; assault, seizure; (military) occupation
andfenge adj acceptable, suitable
fo_n fo_ fe_(h)t` (o_) on~, fe_ng fe_ngon g`efangen, feng and~ (a) and~e and~a
PC1 fon feng, PC2 underfeng, Orm fon fo fot` onn~, onnfengenn, fanngenn onn~ unnderr~, Lmn fon fo on-, feng (a) fengen on- under-, Owl fo ifot`, MED fo_n/fongen, onfangen
folde n f
earth, ground
fe_ld n m field
flet n nt; flettes pl floor; dwelling, hall
flo_r n m/f floor
folde, feld, flett, flo_r
PC1 feldan, Orm feld, flor, Lmn folde, feld, ulette, flor, Ch fe(e)ld, floor, MED flet
folk n nt
people, folk, nation, tribe
folkcu_th adj accepted, noted
folkisc, folklic adj public, popular, secular, common, plebeian
flok n m; flockes group, flock, troop
folc, flocc
Orm follc follkess, flocc flockess, Lmn folc folke, flockes, MED folk, flok

1 2

for prep
for, in place of
forto_ conj/prep in order to; although, even if; until
fort`i_, fort`an (fort`aem) conj therefore, consequently
fort`i_ t`at conj because
for, for~t`ae_m (~t`a_m ~t`an ~t`on), ford`y_ ~ t`aet
PC1 fort`an, PC2 for, fort`i t`aet, Orm forr, forrt`i ~ t`att, Lmn fort`an (o/ae) ~ t`at for t`i, Owl for t`an t`at, MED for ~to
for~ pref
completely, utterly
for~
for~be_den, ~higgen, ~le_sen, ~de_men, ~do_n, ~nimen, ~saken, ~se_n, ~standen i.a.; has a destructive sense in some cases
fore pref, adv
pre, fore; before, afore, previously; because of
foren, atforen, beforen prep, adv before, in front of, opposite; forward
to_foren adv previously
fore foran be~ aet~ to_~
PC1 fore, PC2 beforen, Orm biforenn, AW fore biforen
fore~bisen, ~boden, ~genge(l), ~say`en, ~se_n, ~speken, ~ward i.a.
forht adj
afraid
forhten v w fear, be afraid
forht ~ian
MED forhtigen
forme adj sp
first, earliest
formest (firmest) adj sp foremost, leading
forma fyrmest (o)
Orm forrme, Lmn forme formeste, AW forme uormeste
fort` adv
forth, forward, ahead, away
fort`en v w carry out, achieve, accomplish, promote, proceed
fort`riht adv immediately, as soon as
furt`er adv further
firt`ren (furt`eren) v w further, aid, assist, support
fort` ~ian furd`or (g`e)fyrd`ran
PC1 furd`or, Orm for(r)t` forrt`~enn ~rihht, firrt`renn, Lmn ford` ~riht, iford`ed furd`er, AW furd`red`, Ch forther(e) forthereth forthred, MED further ~en

1 2

fort`en adv
recently, already, first; quite, exactly, even
furt`um (fort`on)
Orm forrt`enn, Lmn fort`e, MED fort`en
fower (fe_wer) num
four
fowerte_ne num; fowerte_nt`e ord fourteen
fowertiy` num; fowertiget`e ord forty
fe_rt`e ord fourth
fe_rt`e dael n m quarter
fe_rt`e (dael) fore ~ ofer quarter to ~ past
fe_ower ~ti_ene ~tig` ~te_od`a (~te_ogd`a) ~tigod`a, fe_ord`a, fe_ord`an-dae_l
PC1 feower ~tyne ~ti, fowertiged`e, feord`e Orm fowwre fowwerrtiy`, fert`e, Lmn feower ~ti, feord`e, AW fowr ~ti ~tud`e (~tende), feord`e, Ch foure fourty, ferthe (ou), TH 1200 fowertid`e, GE 1325 fowrtende, GC 1325 fourtet`e, MED four -te_ne -te_nthe ~ti_ ~ti_the, fe_rthe
numbers 4-12 may be declined if they do not stand before a noun
fram (fra_) prep, adv
from; forth, away
fram adj strenuous, active, brave
frame, freme n f; ~ful benefit, advantage, gain; excellence
framen v w avail, benefit
fremen v w further, advance; perform, accomplish, commit, effect, attain
fulfremen v complete, fulfil, perfect
fremde adj foreign, alien, strange
fram ~ian, fremu, fremian/fremman full~, fremde (~ede)
fra__
PC2 fra(m), Orm fra, frame, fremmde, Lmn from, fremmen, AW from, freamien, fremien, PH3 freme, SO fram, Ch fra(m) (o), fremde (fremed), MED freme framen fremen fremmen
fratwe n f pl
jewellery, ornaments, decoration
fratwen v w adorn, decorate
innefratwe n interior decoration, decor
y`atwe n f pl arms, equipment, trappings
itawe n f pl apparatus, implements; genitalia
tawen v w prepare
fraetw~a ~an ~ian, g`eatwe g`eta_wu, (g`e)ta_wian
Orm tawwenn, AW itawet, MED fretewiaen, tauen
OE fraetwian < for [frae] + tawian
frae n m
lord, ruler; god
Friy` n f; ~day` goddess of love and home, wife of Woden
fre_a, Fri_g` ~edaeg`
PC1 Fridaeig, PC2 Fridaei, Lmn Fridaei, Ch Friday
~ ~
fre_nd n s/pl
friend, friends
fre_ndlic adj accepted
fre_ adj; n f free, dear; Lady
fre_d n f friendship, goodwill, affection
fre_n (fre_g~) v w free; love, favour, embrace
frit` n m/nt; ~sum adj peace, safety, refuge
unfrit` n conflict, unrest
fre_ond fri_end, fre_o, fre_od, fre_ogan fre_ode, frit` (~u) un~
PC1 freond, freon, PC2 fre(o)nd, unfrit`, Orm frend, frit`t`, Lmn frend, freoi(y`)en freoden, frid`, AW freohin, Owl fro
friy`en (frigg~) v s5; fray` fraegen ifrey`en
ask, inquire, question, investigate
ifriy`en v learn, find out, hear tell
frey`en n nt question
ifraege n nt report; hearsay, knowledge
fray`nen v w fray`nede; (friy`nen v s3 fray`n fruy`nen ifruy`nen) ask, inquire
fricgan ge~ frig`et` fraeg` frae_gon g`efreg`en, freg`(e)n, g`efrae_ge, frig`nan (ae u u), fraeg`ning
Orm friy`y`enn, fray`y`n~enn ~edd, Lmn fraeine ~ien fraeinede, AW freinen, Ch frayneth, MED fri_en, frainen
OI frȳja - to question, find fault, taunt → MED fri_en, Orm friy`y`enn - find fault, taunt; Orm prob. influenced by OE frig`et`, sg3 of fricgan - ask
fri_ken v w
dance
fri_cian
MED friken
fro_d adj
wise, old
fro_d
frume n m
beginning, origin, cause
fruma
Lmn frume, Owl frume
~
fi_r n nt
fire
fi_ren adj ablaze, fiery, flaming
fy_r ~en
Orm fir, Lmn fur, SO fire, Ch fyr, MED fi_r
first adj, adv
first; firstly
fyrst (i)
PC1 first, PC2 fyrst, Orm firrst
ga_n v irr; y`e_de iga_n
go
aga_n adv, v ago; pass, go away
bega_n v traverse, surround, besiege, occupy
iga_n v undertake
gang n m path, passage, flow
gangen v s7; ge_ng ge_ngen igangen go, walk
igangen v reach, get; happen
ofergangen v traverse, transgress, overreach
genge n nt, suff, adj troop; goer; prevailing, effective, appropriate
gengen v w enter, go, run
bi_genge n m inhabitant, cultivator, worshipper
foregenge, foregengel n ancestor, forebear, predecessor
igenge n fellow traveller
ga_n gae_t`/ga_t` e_ode e_odon g`ega_n, gang, gangan (e_ e_ a) ofer~, gengan, genge, ~genga bi_~ fore~ g`e~
PC1 gad` geden/eodon, gangende, PC2 gaede/iaede ieden, genge, Orm gan gat` y`ede ~nn, ganngenn ofer~, genge, Ch go(o)(n) go(o)th/geth yede ~n (y)go(o)n
gader, to_gadere (~gedre) adv
together, jointly
gaderen v w gather, collect
gadeling n m kinsman, companion
y`ed n nt; y`eddes pl song, tale, speech
y`edden v w recite, speak, discuss
geador to_~gaedere aet~ (~gaedre), gadrian (er), gaedeling, g`iedd ~ian
PC1 togadere (e), PC2 togaedere, gadered, Orm togeddre, gaddrenn, Lmn gadere to~, gaedereden, gadelinges, y`eddes, AW togederes, gedered`, MED yed

1 2

ga_nen v w
gape, stare, yawn
ga_nian
Ch ganeth, MED gonen
ga_r n m
spear, javelin, dart, weapon; tempest
ga_r
Orm gare, MED gore

1 2

ga_st n m; ~lic adj
spirit, soul, breath; ghost, demon
gaesten v w terrify, torment
ga_st (ae_), gae_sten
Orm gast, Lmn gaest, agaste, AW gast, ageasten, MED gost, agasten
gest (y`est) n m
guest, visitor
g`iest,
gestr
PC2 gestes, Orm gessthus, AW gest, Ch gest
gleng n m/f
ornament
glengen v w adorn
gleng (ge)~an
MED gleng
God n m
God
God
PC2 Godes, Orm God(d), MED God
go_d adj, n m
good
go_den v w improve
ungo_d n m evil; villain
betere adj cmp better
betst (best) adj sp best
be_ten v w amend, make amends, repair, restore
bo_t n f remedy, amends, relief, benefit, salvation
de_dbo_t n penance, repentance
go_d ~ian un~, betera betst, be_tan, bo_t dae_d~
PC1 betst, PC2 god ~ed betere, Orm god bettre bettste bote daed~ betenn, AW god betere best bote, MED go_d ~en un~ best bo_t be_ten
gold n nt
gold
gilden v w; adj gild; golden
y`elwe (y`ele) adj; ~n v w yellow
gold gyldan, g`eolu g`eolwe g`eolwian
PC1 gildene, PC2 gold, Orm gold, gildene, Lmn gold, guldene, MED gilden, yelwe (y`alwe/y`eluwe) ~n
grim adj; ~me/~li_ce adv
fierce, savage, cruel
grimmen v s3; gram grummen igrummen rage, roar
gram adj angry, wrathful, hostile
grame n m anger, rage
gremen (a) v w enrage, provoke
grimm (y) grimness, grimman (a u u), gram ~a, (g`e)gremian
PC1 gremienne, Orm grimme, gramm, Lmn gram, AW grim ~liche grimme, gremien gremed`, MED grim, gram, gremen
~
grot n nt
piece, fragment, particle
meregrot n pearl
grot ~ig`, mere-gre_ot (-grot)
AW grot, SO grot, Ch grot
LL margarita
gru_nd n m
ground, foundation
gri_nden v s3; gra_nd gru_nden igru_nden grind
grund, grindan (a u u)
Orm grund, grindesst, Lmn grund, AW grinden, Ch ground, gryndeth ygrounde
gume n m
man, adult male
guma
Lmn gume, AW gume, MED gome
ME bridegome > ModE bridegroom
gu_t` n f, pref
war, battle, combat
gu_d`
Lmn gud`, MED gu_th
hafen (habben) v w (irr); hafde (hadde) ihafed
have
forhafen v abstain
nafen v not have
habban for~, haebbe haefst haeft` habbat`, haefde
PC2 hauen haefde/hadde hefden/hadden haved, Orm hafenn/habbenn hafe hafesst/haffst hafet`t` hafenn nafe haffde ~nn naffde ~nn, AW ihaved, Ch ha(ve)n hast hath ha(ve)n hadde ~n had

1 2

hafen n f
port, harbour, haven; property, possession
haefen
PC2 hauen, Lmn hauen haf(e)ne, Ch haven

1 2 2

ihagen (hagiy`en) v w intr
please, suit, fit; afford
onhagen v convenient, possible, afford
g`e~hagian on~
me_ ihaget` - it suits me; me_ to_ that ihaget` - I can afford it; me_ onhaget` - it's within my power
hage n m
enclosure, hedge; hawthorn, haw; trifle
hagt`orn n hawthorn
haga
Owl hay`e/hahe, Ch hawe
hag (hay`tes) n f
hag, witch, fury
haeg`-tes (hae_ts)
AW haggen, MED hagge

1 2

ha_l adj
healthy, hale, whole, intact
halge n m; ~n pl saint
Alre Halgen E_fen n m All Saints' Eve, Halloween
halgen v w sanctify, hallow, ordain
ha_liy` adj; ~do_m n m holy
ha_liy`day` n m holy day, holiday
ha_lsum adj wholesome, nourishing
wes (t`u_) ha_l interj hello, greetings, good health, wassail
haele (haelt`) n f health, prosperity, safety, salvation
haelen v w; ~d n m heal, save
unhaelt` n insanity
ha_l ~ig` ~sum ~ig`daeg` ~ig`do_m, halg~a ~ian, hae_l~u ~d` ~an
PC1 halgan, aelre halgan maesse niht, PC2 halech~en ~ede, hali ~dom, Orm hal unn~summ, hally`h`e hally`h`enn, haliy` ~dom, haele haelenn, Lmn hal, haly`en, hali, haele haelen, AW hal, halhen, hali, heale healed`, Alle halhene dei, GC 1325 alle halwe eue (halwen tid), MED al-halwe(n)
ha_lden v s7; he_ld he_lden iha_lden
hold, keep; consider
atha_lden v restrain, hold back
beha_lden v behold
iheld n nt protection, custody
healdan aet~ be~(e_o e_o ea), (g`e)hield
PC2 halden held, Orm held ~enn, Lmn haelden bi-halded`, Ch holde(n) he(e)ld
halet` n m
warrior, hero
haele(t`) haelet`es
Lmn haeled` haled`es, MED heleth
half n/adj
half
healf
PC2 half, Orm hallf, Lmn half
halh (hale) n m
corner, nook
healh (a)
Owl hale, MED hale
ha_m n m
home, house, dwelling, abode, manor; estate, hamlet
ha_m
PC1 ham, Orm ham, AW ham, Ch ho(o)m
hand n f
hand
ihende prep, adv near, next to; at hand
ofhende adj absent
ne_h at handes exp almost
hand, g`e~hende of~
Orm hannd, Lmn hond, Ch hand/hond
ihende is postpositional: he_ lay` his t`e_den ihende
hard adj; ~e adv
hard, fierce, bitter, vehement
hardlic adj stern, harsh, excessive
hardmo_d adj obstinate, brave
heard ~lic` ~mo_d
PC1 harde, Orm harrd, Owl hard

1 2

ha_t adj
hot
ha_t
Orm hat, AW hat, SO hot
ha_ten v s7; heht hehten (he_t) iha_ten
name, call; order, command
iha_ten, beha_ten v promise, vow, threaten
ha_tte ~st ~n; pass pr/pt; am/is/are/was called
o_netten v w hasten, hurry
o_rette n m warrior, champion, hero
ha_tan (e_ e_ a_) (heht) be~, hae_tst hae_tt (ha_test ha_tet`), ha_tte, o_nettan, o_retta
PC2 hatte gehaten, Orm (y`e)hatenn, Lmn hatet` hehte, hatte ihaten, AW hatte het/hight ihaten, MED onettan
hat`e~ pref
war, battle
head`u
he_ pron sg3 m nom
he
him m/nt acc/dat him, it
his m/nt gen his, its
it (hit) nt nom it
he_/hit hine/hit his him
PC2 he him his it (hit), Orm he him hiss itt (het), AW he hine his him hit, Ch it (hyt)
ratio is 15:1 for PC2 it:hit

1 2

haen adj
lowly, despised, abject, wretched
(i)haenen (he_nen) v w prostrate, abase, fell, humble; afflict, weaken, crush, injure, oppress; insult, accuse, condemn
he_an (g`e)hi_enan (y_/ae_/e_)
Lmn hene/haene haenen, AW heane heanen, MED he_n he_nen
haer n nt
hair
hae_r
Orm haer, Lmn her, Owl heare
hefe n m
weight, burden
hefen (hebbe hebben) v s6 irr; ho_f ho_fen ihefen lift, heave
hefiy` adj heavy, serious, grievous
hefiy`nes n f affliction
hefiy`ti_me adj burdesomen
hefiy`en v w tr/intr make heavy, grow heavy
ahefen v raise, lift up
oferhefen v neglect, overlook
hebban hebbe hefst heft` hebbat` ho_f ho_fon g`ehafen (e) hefe hefig` ~lic` ~nes ~ti_me
PC1 hefig heui, Orm hefenn hof hofenn hefiy` ~like ~liy`, AW heouen (hebben) iheuen heui

1 2

he_gen v w
perform, achieve
(g`e)he_gan
AW heie, MED heien
he_h (haeh) adj
high
he_ge adj w/adv high, up high
he_gen v w raise, lift, erect, exalt, extol
he_hlic adj noble, honourable
he_rre (he_hre, he_gere) adj cmp higher
he_hst (he_gest) adj sp highest
he_ht`e n f height
he_ah (he_h) hi_erra hiehst he_an hea_ht`u
PC2 heh ~lice, Orm heh hey`h`e hehhre hey`hesst hey`hedd, Lmn haehy`e ~re, SO heiy`e, Ch heygher, MED heigh heigher heien
helm n m
helmet, protection, defence, covering
helmen v w cover, crown
oferhelmen v overhang, overshadow
halle n f hall, manor
helen (be~) v s4; hal haelen iholen (helede) conceal, cover, hide
helle n f hell
helster n m concealment, hiding place, darkness
ihole n m protector, defender
helm ~ian ofer~ian, helan (ae ae_ o) be~ for~, heall (a), hell, heolstor, g`ehola
PC2 forholen, Orm forrholenn, helle, Lmn halm (ae) helmen, halle, helede, helle, Ch helm, halle, MED helen, heal(le), helle
help (~e) n m/f
help
helpen v s3; halp, hulpen iholpen help
help ~e helpan (a u o)
PC2 helpe, Orm hellpenn hallp hullpe hollpenn, Lmn helpen hulpe
~
hefen (hefn~) n m/f
heaven, sky
heofon heofnes
PC1 heofon heofne/heouene, Orm heffen (eo) heffness, Lmn heofne haeuene, MED heven
here n m
army
sciphere n navy, fleet
heretoge n nt General, chieftain, commander
hergen, hery`en (on~) v w ravage, plunder, pillage, ransack, harry, harrow
forhergen v devastate
here her(i)g`as, heretoga, hergian (g`) on~ for~
PC1 here ~toga, hergon, Orm here, Lmn here ~toy`e, haery`ien (e), AW herhede, Ch harye, harwed (y), MED herien

1 2

he_r adv; ~bi_
here
henen (henne) adv hence, from here
hider adv hither, to here
he_r ~inne ~of ~on ~to_, heonon(e), hider
PC1 heonon (heonne), hider, PC2 her, Orm her, hiderr, Lmn her, hennen (eo), AW heonne, hider, MED he_r(e), henne(s) (henen), hider
he_ren v w; he_rde
hear
ihe_ren v accept, accede, obey
ihe_rsum adj obedient
he_rendes n pl audience
hi_eran (e_) g`e~, (g`e)hi_ersum
Orm herenn herrde, Lmn heren herde, Owl iheret`
~
herien v w; heriede (herede)
praise
heriendlic adj praiseworthy
herian herode, herig`endlic`
Lmn herien herey`ede, AW herien herede heriende, Ch herie heriest heryen heryed (i)heryed, MED herien (ihered/yheryed)
exception to rule - OE ~ian > eME ~en; cp ferien
~
hi_ (t`ey`) pron pl3 nom
they
hem acc/dat them
here gen their
hi_e hi_e heora (ie/i) him/heom, t`a_ t`ara
t`eir t`eira
PC2 hi her(e) heom, Orm t`ey`y` ~re, here (eo) hem, Lmn hi (eo/a) heore h(e)om, t`aie, Owl hi hore hom, PM hi, SO he her hem, t`ai, Ch they, hir/her(e) hem
hiy`e n m
mind, thought, disposition, intention, desire; heart, courage
ihiy`d n f/nt thought, reflection
hiy`diy` adj, suff mindful, minded; chaste
hogen (higg~) v w irr; hogede consider, think, intend, resolve
forhogen v despise, neglect, disregard
hiht n m hope, expectation
hig`e g`ehyg`d hyg`dig` (g`e)hycgan hogian hogode for~, hyht
Orm hiy`, Lmn huy`e, hoy`ede, Owl hoy`et`, MED hie, houen
hycgan was often replaced by hogian in other dialects and late West Saxon, and didn't survive to eME
hild n f
battle, combat, warfare
hild
hinden at~ be~ adv/prep
behind
hindren v w hinder
hindan aet~ be~, hindrian
Orm bihinndenn, AW bihinden, Ch hyndre, MED hinde bi~, hindren
la_f n m
bread, loaf
lafdiy` n f lady
la_ferd n m lord
hla_f (+ dig`e, weard >) hlae_fdig`e (a_) hla_ford
PC2 lauerd, Orm laf laffdiy` laferrd, Lmn laues lafdie/laeuedi lauerdinges, AW lave leafdi laverd
last n nt
burden, load
hlaest
Ch last, MED last
lu_d adj
loud
hlu_d
Lmn ludere, AW lud, Owl lud
ni_gen v s1; na_h nigen inigen
bow, bend, decline, sink, fall
underni_gen v acquiesce
hni_gan (a_ i i)

1 2 3 4

ho_f n m
hoof
ho_f
MED hof
ho_f n m
moderation, discretion, respect
ho_flaes adj immoderate, excessive
ho_f ~lauss
Orm hof hofelaes, AW hofles, MED hof ~les
beho_fen v w tr/intr impers
be necessary, be incumbent upon, be obligatory, behove
beho_fian
PC1 behofed`, PC2 behoued, Orm bihofet`t`, Ch bihouen
Beho_fet` t`e_ t`at to_ do_n - It is necessary for/ incumbent upon you to do that. Michel mete t`aer beho_fede - a lot of food was needed there.
~

1 2

holm n
holm, island, peninsula; river meadow; hill
holmr
Lmn holme, MED holm(e)
hord n nt
hoard, treasure
hordere n treasurer, chamberlain
hord ~ere
PC2 horder-wican, Orm hord, AW hord
rake n m
throat, jaw
hraca/hrace (hracu)
AW rake, MED rake
rat`e adv; ~r cmp ~st sp
hastily, quickly, promptly, soon
rad adj, pref quick, prompt, active, nimble
hrad`e hrad`or, hraed (t`)
Orm rat`e, Lmn rad`e, raed, Owl rat`e, rad
redden v w; redde ired; a~
save, rescue, recover, deliver, set free
hreddan a_~
Orm reddenn redde, AW redd, MED redden
re_den v s2; raed ruden iroden
adorn
hre_odan (e_a u o)
re_wen v s2 tr; raew ruwen irowen
distress, grieve
re_w n f; ~ful regret, sorrow, penitence
re_wlic adj; ~nes grievous, pitiful
re_wsen v w intr repent, feel pity, feel sorrow
hre_ow ~an (ea_ u o) ~(s)ian ~lic` ~ful
Orm reowet`t` raew, AW reowed`, Ch rewe, MED reuen reusen
me_ re_wet`: I regret
~
re_t` n m
victory, glory, fame, triumph, honour
re_t`en v w exult, rejoice
ro_t`~ pref glory, fame
ro_t`y`erele n crown
hre_d` hre_d`an hro_d`g`irela ro_d`hund Hro_t`gar
Rodger, Roger
hrod`- is only found in proper names and a couple of compound words
ri_nen v s1; ra_n rinen irinen
touch
unri_nendlic adj untouchable
hri_nan (a_ i i)
Orm ran, AW rinen ran, MED ri_nen
ring n m
ring; link, fetter
ringen v w ringde iringed; s3 rang rungen i`rungen provide with rings; surround; ring, sound
hring ~an
PC1 ringden, Orm ringenn, Lmn ringe ringeden (rongen) i-rungen, MED ringen (rang/ringde rungen/ironge)
hringan is weak in OE; strong forms by analogy with singen from 1225
risen v w
shudder, tremble
hrisian
Lmn rusien riseden, AW risede
ri_s n nt
twig, branch
hri_s
AW ris, SO ris, MED ri_s
ro_t`er n m
joy, pleasure, solace, benefit
hrod`or
hu_ interrog adv, conj
how
hu_
Orm hu, Lmn hu, MED hou
ProtG *hwo_ - instrumental of *hwaz (> hwa_ hwat)
~
hund num; ~red
hundred
hund ~red
PC1 hund ~red, Orm hunndredd, Lmn hund ~red
hu_nd n m
dog
hund
Orm hundess, Lmn hund, AW hund, Ch hound
hunte n m
hunter
hunten v w hunt
hunting n prey
hunt~a ~ian
Orm hunnt~e ~enn, Ch hunt~e ~en
hu_s n nt
house; inn; temple
hu_s
PC2 hus, Orm hus, MED hous
hwa_ pron interrog/rel m/f
who
hwat nt, interj what; indeed, behold, lo
hwa_m (hwam, hwaem) acc/dat whom
hwa_s (hwas) gen whose
hwi_ inst, interj why; well then
ihwa_, ey`hwa_ pron anyone; everyone, each
na_t-hwa_ adj/pron someone
hwa_ swa_ pron rel who(so)ever
ihwat, ey`hwat pron anything; everything, each
na_t-hwat pron something
hwat-hwuge adv somewhat, slightly
hwa_ hwaet hwone hwaes hwae_m (a_) hwy_/hwon, g`e~hwa_ ae_g`~ na_t~ ~ swa_, g`e~hwaet ae_g`~ na_t~
PC1 hwa, PC2 wua wat, Orm wha whatt whamm whas whi, Lmn wha whaet wham whes whi, AW hwa hwet hwam hwas hwi, SO wham, Ch who what whom whoos why
eME hwa_s - assimilation to the vowel of hwa_
hwanne (hwan, hwonne) adv, conj
when
hwonne (a/ae/e)
PC1 hwonne, Orm whann(e), AW hwen(ne) (whonne), Owl hwan won(e), Ch whan(ne)

1 2

hwat adj
active, brisk, quick, prompt, sharp, eager, bold
hwataediy` adj very brave
hwatmo_d adj brave, courageous
hwatnes, hwatscipe adj activity, vigour, courage
hwaet
Lmn whaete, TH hwat, MED what
hwaerinterrog adv, conj
where
ihwaer, ey`hwaer adv anywhere, everywhere
na_t-hwaer adv somewhere
nohwaer adv nowhere
hwaerfore interrog adv, conj why, for that reason
hwaerof conj whereby, regarding which
hwaer swa_ conj wherever
hwenen adv, conj whence, from where
hwider adv, conj whither, to where
nohwider adv, conj to nowhere, in no direction
hwae_r aeg`~ ge~ na_~ na_t~ ~ swa_, hwanon(e), hwider na_~
PC1 hwaer ge~ aeg~, PC2 nowiderwardes, Orm whaer ey`y`~ ~off nowwhar, Lmn wheonene, AW hwer no~ i~ ei~ ~fore, hweonene (hwenne), hwider no~, Ch whenne(s), whider
hwenen is a special cases - matches t`enen and henen
hwerfen v s3; hwarf hwurfen ihworfen
turn, change; roam, move about
athwerfen v return
hwarfen v w roll, revolve
hwarf n m crowd, troop; concourse, exchange
hwarftlen, hwirflen v w whirl
hwirfel n m; ~po_l circuit, whirl
hwirft n m rotation, course, orbit
umbhwirft n circumference, circuit; region, district
hweorfan (a u o) aet~, hwierfan hwearfian, hwearftlen, hwyrfel hwyrflian hwirflic`e hwyrfepo_l, hwyrft ymb~
Orm wharrfenn wharrfedd, HR 1175 hwurfon, Lmn whaeruen whaerfde, Ch whirle, MED wharven (hwarefen), whirlen, whirftlen, umbhwirft
hwet`er (hwat`er) pron, conj, adj, det
whether, which of two
hwet`ere adv however, nevertheless
hwet`eres pron gen whose, of which
ihwet`er, ey`hwet`er, ey`t`er adj, pron either, both, each; either one, each one
ey`t`er y`e A y`e B both A and B
na_hwet`er, nowt`er adj, pron neither
hwaet`er ~e ae_g`~ (ae_g`d`er) g`e~ na_~ (na_wt`er no_wt`er)
PC1 hwed`er aegd`er ~ y`e y`e nout`er, Orm whet`t`r ey`y`t`err nowwt`err, AW hwet`er ~es eid`er nowd`er, Owl hwet`er (a) eit`er not`er
hwi_l n f
time, occasion
hwi_le conj, adv while; meanwhile
hwi_lum formerly, once; sometimes
hwi_l ~e ~um
PC1 hwile, hwilon, PC2 wile, Orm whil ~e ~umm, AW hwi_l ~e, MED whilom
hwilc adj/pron
which
ihwilc, ey`hwilc, aelc adj, pron each, any, every; each one, everyone
na_t-hwilc pron someone
hwilc` (e/y) ae_g`~ g`e~ nat~, ae_lc`
PC2 hwilc aelc, Orm whillc illc, AW hwuch, Lmn aelc(he)
OE hwa_ + li_c` > hwilc`; a_ + g`e + hwilc` > ae_g`hwilc` > aelc`; cp swilc
hwi_t adj/n nt
white, albumen
hwi_t ~an
PC1 hwites, AW hwit, Owl hwit, Ch whit (y)
hwo_n adj, n, adv
little, few; trifle; somewhat
hwo_n
MED who_n
~
hil n m
hill
hilles gen/pl hills, hill's
hyll (hyl)
Orm hill, Lmn hul hulles hulle, Ch hil (hill), MED hil(le)
ic (I_) pron sg1 nom
I
me_ acc/dat me
mi_n (mi_) gen my, mine
ic` me_ mi_n
PC1 me min(e), PC2 i, Orm icc (I) me min(e) (mi), Lmn ich (ic) me min(e) (mi), Ch ich/I/y me my/myn(e)
ON ek; mi_n behaves like an adjective, hence - mi_ne dat/pl; mi_ is generally used before a consonant
ilke adj
same
ilca
PC2 ilc(e), Orm illke, AW ilke, Ch ilk(e)
in prep/adv
in
inne(n) adv/prep inside, within
innere adj cmp inner, interior
innerscip n internship
in innan inne innera innian
PC2 in inne(n), Orm inn/i inne, MED in (i) inne innen
i often found before consonants; see also bord, fratwe, werpen
in (inn) n m
inn, lodgings, dwelling; apartment, chamber
innes gen/pl inns
inn (in)
PC1 in, Orm inn, Lmn in innes

1 2

1 2

i_ren (i_sern) n nt, adj
iron; sword, weapon, fetter, instrument
i_sen (i_ren/i_sern)
PC2 iren, Orm irenn, AW ir(e)n, MED i_ren
y`are (y`arwe) adj
ready, prepared, fitted, complete; eager
y`arwe n f; adv equipment, clothing, gear; readily, surely
y`arwen v w construct, erect; procure, supply
y`erwen v w prepare, equip, adorn; clothe, dress; cook
bey`arwen v armour
g`earo gearwes g`earwian g`ierwan (y)
PC1 gare, Lmn y`are y`arewe y`aerwen, Owl y`are y`arewe, MED yare yaren
y`ard n m
yard, enclosure
middeny`ard n world, earth
g`eard middan~
PC2 iaerd, Ch ye(e)rd, MED yerd (y`arde)
~
y`a_ten (y`ett~) v w; y`a_tede/y`a_tte
convey, give, grant, allow
ja_ta ja_tta
PC1 geatte/iaette getton/ietten, Orm y`atenn y`atte y`atedd, AW y`etted` y`ettede, MED yeten (y`etten/yate)
y`e_ pron pl2
you, you all
y`ow acc you
y`owre gen your
y`it dual you, you two
ink acc you, you two
inker gen your, your two
g`e_ e_ow (iuh) e_ower (iuer), g`it inc incer
PC1 ge iure, Orm y`e y`uw y`ure, y`itt y`unc y`unnkerr, Lmn y`e y`eow eower, y`it inc incker, AW y`e ow ower, inc incker, SO y`ou y`our, Ch yow youre, MED ink inker
y`ae, y`e_se adv
yes, yea, yeah
y`aeten v w confirm, say yes, consent
andy`aeten v w acknowledge, profess; confess
y`aetelaes adj trucculent
g`e_a ~tan, g`e_se
Orm y`a, y`aetenn, anndgaetenn (y`) anndy`aetnesse, y`aetelaes, Lmn y`use, AW y`e, y`es, Ch ye, yis, MED ye (yea), yis, and-y`ae_ten
~
y`aen prep
against, facing, toward, in regard to
ay`aen, ony`aen adv again, back
ay`aenes, ony`aenes, to_y`aenes prep against
g`e_an on~ to_~es
PC2 agaenes (e) togaenes, Orm y`aen onn~ onn~ess, Lmn ay`aen ay`e(i)nes to-y`eines
g`e_an in exchange for, in contrast to, in expectation of
y`aer n nt/m
year
g`e_ar
PC2 gaer, Orm y`er y`aeress, Lmn y`er y`earen, PH3 y`eare

1 2 3

y`efen (y`if~) v s5; y`af y`aefen iy`efen
give
y`efe n m gift, bribe
ay`efen v surrender, deliver, restore, grant
fory`efen v; ~y`efnes n f forgive, offer
gafol n nt tribute, tax, duty
y`ifet`e adj, n nt allotted; fate
y`ift n nt/f gift, dowry, price
g`iefan (ea e_a ie) for~, g`iefu, forg`iefnes, gafol, g`ifed`e, g`ift
PC1 gifene iaef/g(e)af iaefen/g(e)auen gyfene/giuen, gaule, PC2 gyuen/iiuen iaf (a)iauen (f), Orm y`ifenn for~ (g) y`aff (g) y`aefenn (g) y`ifenn (g) y`ife` (g), Lmn y`euen, gauel, y`iued`e, y`ift, Ch yeve(n) yaf yave(n)/yeve (y)yeven, yifte, MED yeven a~
y`e_lden v s3; y`ald y`ulden (g) iy`olden (g)
pay
ay`e_lden v surrender, yield, cede
fory`e_lden v compensate, reward, requite, reimburse
y`e_ld n nt payment, tax, tribute
wery`e_ld n compensation for a man's life
gild (y`ild) n nt guild, association, brotherhood
gilde n m member
g`ieldan (ea gu go) a_~ for~, g`ield wergild, (g`e)gild
PC1 geold, PC2 gaeildes, Orm y`eldenn y`oldenn (g), y`eldess, AW y`elden y`eald, y`eld, Ch yelden yald iyolden, MED gild(e) (yild), wer-geld, ye_lden a~ for~
MED has three entries for gilde from 12th c
g`ieldan reward, requite, render; worship, serve, sacrifice to; punish
y`emen v w
care, care for, heal; take notice, take heed
y`eme n care
y`emelaes adj careless
y`emelaest n neglect
g`ieman g`ieme ~le_as ~le_aslic` ~le_ast
PC1 to geamene, Orm y`emenn y`emelaeste, AW y`emen y`emeles ~liche, MED yemen
y`estren adv; ~e_fen ~niht
yesterday
g`iestran ~ae_fen ~niht
Lmn y`urstendaei, Ayb yesteneuen, MED yester ~dai (y`esterndai/yhistredai)
y`eten v s5; y`at y`aeten y`eten
get, grasp
andy`eten, ony`eten, undery`eten v understand, perceive
andy`et n intellect, perception, knowledge; meaning, interpretation
bey`eten v get, receive; beget, produce
aet`bey`aete adj easy to get
fory`eten v forget
g`ietan (ea e_a ie) and~ be~ for~ on~ under~, andg`iet (i)
PC1 begeaton beieten, PC2 begaet, undergaeton, Orm anndgaetenn, bigatt biy`etenn, forry`etet`t`, Lmn on-y`iten any`aet, biy`iten bi-y`eted` biy`eat bi-y`aeten, fory`eten, vnder-y`at under-y`etene, AW bi~y`eoten for~ under~, MED andy`it, ony`iten, biyeten, foryeten, underyeten
OE g`ietan is rare; beg`ietan is the usual form
y`e_t adv
yet, still
t`a_y`e_t adv further
g`i_et
Orm y`et, Lmn y`et, AW y`et
~
y`e_ten v s2; y`aet y`uten iy`oten
pour, spill, emit, inject
g`e_otan (g`e_a gu go)
Orm y`etenn y`otenn, Lmn y`eoten igote, AW y`eotted` y`eat iy`otten (g)
y`if conj
if
g`if
PC2 gif, Orm y`iff, Lmn y`if
~ ~
y`ond prep, adv, pref
through, throughout, over, across
y`onden, bey`onde prep/adv beyond
y`on adv, adj there; that, distant, yonder
g`eond (be)~an (be~e), g`eon
PC1 be geondon, PC2 beionde, Orm biy`onndenn, Lmn y`eon, Ch biyonde, yon
y`u_ adv
already, formerly, earlier, once, in days of yore
g`e_o (iu_)
BH iu, MED yu_
y`ung adj
young
y`uget` n f youth, band of young retainers
g`eong (iung), g`eogut`
PC2 iunge, Orm y`ung, Lmn y`unge, y`uy`ed`e, AW y`ung, y`uhed`e
key` n f
key
cae_g`
BB 1175 caey`e, WA 1225 keie, Ch keye, MED keie
king (kining) n m
king
kine~ pref royal
kinelic adj royal
kinehelm n m crown, diadem
kin n nt; kinnes, kinne family, kin, kindred, race, stock; kinsman; gender
ki_nd n nt/f; ~elic kind, type, species, genus; character, properties, qualities; generation, birth, origin
iki_nd n nt/f; ~elic nature, living things
iki_nde adj natural, innate; suitable
kennen v w conceive, procreate, beget, produce, create, give birth to; nominate, attribute, assign
kennendlic adj genital
cyning ~do_m, cyne~ ~do_m ~lic`, cyn(n), cynd g`e~e, cenn~an ~end ~endlic ~estre ~ung
PC1 cining king, PC2 king, Orm kingess kinge kinn kinedom mankinne kinde, Lmn king cun ~nes (k) ~ne kine-lond i-cunde kennen
kinges sune Henri_es - King Henry's son
land (e) n nt
land, country
ellende, elelendisc adj alien, foreign, strange, exiled
land (o) ellende ele-lendisc
PC2 land ~es, Orm land ~e, MED lond el-lendish
la_ng adj; ~e adv
long
ila_ng, ilenge adj dependent, belonging, related, akin; addicted; at hand
andla_ng adj/prep entire, continuous, extended; along, beside
la_ngen v w long for, yearn
la_nget` n m longing, anxiety
leng adv longer
lengre adj cmp; sp lengest longer
lenge, lengt`e n f length
lang ~e ~ot` ~ian, and~, leng ~ra ~est ~(t`)u, g`elang g`elenge
PC1 lengt`e, PC2 lang, leng, Orm lang, Lmn long an ~, leng, SO leng ~er,Hav andelong

1 2

last n m
footprint, track, trace, spoor; gait, step; pursuit
on laste exp after, behind, in pursuit
ilast n nt observance, accomplishment; duty, obligation, vow
lasten (ilaesten) v perform, accomplish, fulfill; last, endure
ilastful adj helpful, serviceable
laered adj learned, educated; clerical
laeren v w teach, instruct, advise, enjoin, persuade
ilaeren v convert
laesten v w follow, serve
la_re n f lore, teaching, instruction
lernen v w learn
lerningcniht n m disciple
list n m/f skill, cunning
la_st g`ela_st ~ful, lae_stan g`e~, lae_ran g`e~, la_r, leornian, list
PC2 lastede, lered, Orm lasstenn, laerenn, lare, le(o)rnenn, Lmn lasten (ae) i~, lare, liste, AW leasten, learen, lare, leornin, liste, Ch laste(n), lerne(n), NED last lastfull
'a_' is shortened in lOE before 'st'
last n f
fault, defect
laest
Orm lasst, Lmn last, MED last
ON löstr

1 2

la_t` adj; n nt
loathsome, hateful, hostile; pain, injury, insult
la_t`en v w tr/intr loathe, be loathed
la_t`lic adj ugly, detestable, disgusting, horrible, repulsive, unpleasant
la_th
PC1 lad`, Orm lat`, Ch lo(o)th
~

1 2

1 2

laed n nt
lead, metal
le_ad
Lmn laed, Ch le(e)d
laeden n nt
Latin, language, utterance
lae_den (e_)
Lmn leoden, AW leden

1 2

laef n nt
leaf
le_af
Orm laefess, Lmn leaf, Ch le(e)f

1 2 3 4

laes adj
disloyal, deceitful, false; lax; worthless
le_as
Lmn leas (ae), AW leas

1 2

laeswe (laes) n f
pasture
lae_s lae_swe (e_)
PC1 laeswe, Lmn leswa, AW lesewen
OE fem wo-stem; rel scadwe medwe

1 2 3

laeten v s7; le_t le_ten ilaeten
let, allow, cause; bequeath, assign
alaeten v forsake, resign, give up, leave
forlaeten v relinquish, abandon, neglect
lat adj; ~e adv sluggish, slow, reluctant, lax, late
latest adj/adv slowest, latest, last
laten v w linger, delay, hesitate
letten v w; lette hinder, delay, resist
lae_tan (e_ e_ ae_) a~ for~, laet ~ra ~est, lat~e ~or ~ost, (g`e)lettan
PC1 laeten, PC2 leten let/laet, Orm laetenn let letenn, làte, lettet`t`, Lmn late, letted`, AW lat (e), letten, Owl forlete, MED lat(e) latest(e)
ilaete n m
expression, manner, bearing
g`elae_te
Owl ilete lete, MED ilete
~
le_d n m
man, compatriot
le_de n f pl people, nation, country
le_den n nt language
le_od ~e, lae_den (e_o/y_)
PC1 leod ~e, Orm led ~e, Lmn leod ~e ~en, AW ledene, Gaw lede
le_f
dear
le_fe (ae) n f leave, permission
le_fen v w allow, permit, grant, concede
ile_fe (ae) n m belief, faith
ile_fen v w believe, trust
ile_flic (ae) n m believable, credible
lof n nt; ~en v w glory, renown; praise
lufe n f; ~n v w love
lufsum adj lovable, delightful
oferlufe n adulation
le_of, le_af li_efan, g`ele_af~a ~lic` g`eli_efan, lof ~ian, lufu luf~ian ~sum
PC2 luue luueden luued, Orm lef, lefe, laefe lefenn, loff lofenn, lufe lufenn luffsumm, Lmn leof, lefuen i-leuen, lof, lufde, AW leuet` leuede lefden, leaf ileuen, unlefliche, MED le_f, leve le_ven, lof
le_fer me_ waere - I'd rather; me_ is le_f - I prefer
le_sen (on~) v w; le_sede
release, loosen, liberate, redeem, deliver
bele_sen v s2 deprive
forle_sen v s2; laes luren iloren lose, abandon; ruin, wear out
laes adj; suff ~without, devoid of, bereft of; ~less
na_t`elaes adv/conj nonetheless, nevertheless, notwithstanding
losen v w escape, be lost; fail; perish
li_esan on~, forle_osan (e_a u o), le_as, losian, na_d`y_lae_s (na_d`e~)
PC1 losedan, PC2 forles forloren, Orm lesenn, Lmn leosen laes iloren forlorene, losien losede ilosed, AW lesen, leosen leas iloren forlore, losen losede iloset, na t`e les, Ch leesen yloren, loste, nathelees, MED le_sen
li_c n nt
body, corpse; form, likeness
~lic adjectival suff ~ly, like
~li_ce adverbial suff ~ly
ili_c adj; ~nes nsimilar, alike
li_ken v w please, appeal
li_c`, lic` li_c`e, g`eli_c` ~nes, li_cian (c`)
PC2 lic, lic ~e, Orm lic(h), licc likk, lice like, liccness, likenn, Lmn iliche, lik(i)en, AW lich, ilich (i)licnesse, liked`, MED lich, lic ~e, ilich, li_ken
li_f n m
life
lifen (libbe libben) v w live
andlifen n f sustenance, nourishment, food
on li_fe, ali_fe adj alive
bi_li_fe adv vigorously, swiftly
li_ffasten v w quicken, enliven, endow with life
la_f n f remainder, relic, survivors
laefen (be~) v w leave, abandon, cease
li_f, libban (lifian) libbe lifast (eo) lifat` (eo) libbat` lifde (leofode), andleofen, (g`e)~faestan g`e~faestnian, la_f, lae_fan
PC1 laeuede, PC2 liuen liuede, Orm lif, libbenn lifet`t` lifenn, bilife, bilefenn, Lmn lif, libben/liuien libbe/liuie/leouie liuet`/leoued` lifde/leofede, biliue, laue, (bi-)laeuen laefde, AW liuien/libben liuie/libbe liued` liuede, laue, leauen (bi)leaued` leafde, SO liif, live, blive
~
liht (le_ht) n nt, adj
light; bright, clear
lihten v w tr/intr light, illuminate; grow light
le_me n m brightness, ray, beam
ley` n m flame, fire
li_xan v w shine, flash, glitter, gleam
le_oht (li_ht), li_htan (e_o), li_eg` (e_), le_oma, li_xan
PC2 lihtede, Orm lihht, le(o)m(e), AW liht, lei, leome, Owl liy`t, MED lei (ley`), le_m(e)
~
limpen v s3; lamp lumpen ilumpen
happen, occur, befall
belimpen v concern, regard, belong to; befit
ilimp n nt accident; event, occurrence
(g`e)limpan be~ (a u u), g`elimp
PC2 belamp, AW limp~ed` lomp, MED limpen, bi~
limpan belong to, suit, befit, concern
linnen v s3; lan lunnen ilunnen
cease, desist; lose, yield
linnan (a u u)
MED linnen

1 2

li_t`en v s1; la_t` lit`en ilit`en
sail, travel, voyage
la_d (~e) n f way, course; leading, carrying
laeden v w; ledde iled lead, guide, trace; bring, carry
belaeden v lead astray, seduce
lid n nt ship
lide, li_t`end n m sailor, sea-farer
li_t`an (a_ i i) li_t`end, la_d, lae_dan be~, lid ~a
PC2 laed ledden, Orm lit`enn, ledenn ledde, Lmn lid`en lad` ilid`en, laeden lede, AW lade, MED li_then
li_t`e adj/adv
gentle, soft, mild, gracious kind
ili_t`en v w accustom, incline
li_t`iy` adj lithe, flexible, supple
li_t`iy`en v w soften, alleviate, assuage, calm, appease
li_t`e li_t`ig` ~ian g`elit`ian
Orm lit`e, Lmn lid`e, Ch lythe, MED li_then
e
liy`en (ligg~) v s5; lay` laegen iley`en
lie, remain
ley`en (legg~) v w; ley`de lay, place
aley`en v allay, suppress
ley`er n nt lair, bed, grave
orley`e n nt conflict, war, battle
lage n f; ~lic law, ordinance, regulation
-lege suff, n f extent
alderlege n destiny, death
ferhlege n life, lifetime
licgan (ae ae_ e) licge lig`st lig`t` (i_), lecgan a~ leg`de (ae), leg`er, orleg`e, lagu, legu alder~ feorh~
PC1 laei (g) laegen, PC2 lien lai, laeide, Orm lit` lay`y`, leggenn ley`y`et`t` ley`y`de, lay`h`e, Lmn liggen lid` lai laeien ileien, leggen leide, lay`e, AW liggen lid` lei leien ilein, legge leid` leide, lahe, Ch lye(n) (liggen), leye (leggen) leyde (a), MED leir, leien 1200
~ ~ ~ ~ ~
lift n m/f/nt
air, atmosphere
lyft
PC1 lyft, Orm lifft, AW luft, MED lift
listen v w
please
(g`e)lystan
Orm lisste, Owl lust, Ch list
me_ bet listeth - I prefer
li_t n, adv
little, few; a few, a small number
laes n, adv cmp less
li_tel (little) adj, adv little, small, short; slightly
laesse adj cmp littler, smaller; lesser, fewer; inferior
laest adj/adv sp least
t`e laeste conj lest, in case, that not
li_thwo_n adv/n a little, very few
li_tlen v w intr diminish, lessen
lu_ten v s2; laet luten iloten bend, stoop, bow, prostrate; submit, worship
ly_t, ly_tel lae_ssa lae_st t`e ~e, ly_tlian, lu_tan (e_a u o)
PC2 litel, Orm litell little lasse, laeste, lutenn, Lmn lut(e), luttel lut(el)le lasse, AW lut(e) leasse least, lutel lutle, luten leat, SO lite, Ch lite lesse/lasse, litel, leest, MED louten
the two OE forms lae_s adv and lae_ssa adj merge in ME; evident in AW, but no examples in PC2 or Orm

1 2

1 2

man n m, pron; mannes gen manne dat
person, human, man; one, someone
menpl; mennes gen people, humans
mennisc adj human
menniscnes, menniscla_k n f humanity, incarnation
man(n) mannes men(n) manna mannum, menn~isc ~(lic`)nes
PC2 man mannes men, Orm mann ~ess ~e menn ~ess mennisske mennisscley`y`c, Ch man mannes men mennes, MED man mennish
to_ manne - in human form
ama_ng prep
among; during
ima_ng n nt mixture, union; crowd
g`emang in/on ~ (amang)
PC2 enmang, Orm amang, Owl among
maniy` adj
many
meniy`e n f multitude
manig`, menig`u
PC2 mani(e), Orm maniy`, Lmn manie, HR meniu
mark n f; ~en v w
mark, sign, line; boundary, limit
marce n f border, borderlands, frontier
Merce n nt pl Mercia
mearc ~a ~ian g`e~, Mierc`e ~isc
Orm merrke, Lmn marken, AW mearke (e), Ch mark, MED mark, march(e)
OE mearc nom mearce acc/gen/dat; ME march(e) from 1225; OFrank > OF marche
mat`el n nt
council, meeting, assembly; advice; speech, interview
mat`elen v w talk, speak, harangue, make a speech
maet`el mat`elian (ea)
AW mead`el~ed` (a), MED mathelen
ma_t`em (madem) n m
treasure, ornament, jewel, gift
imaene adj, adv common, public; together, in common
ma_n n nt crime, wickedness, guilt, sin
ma_na_t` n m perjury, false oath
ima_ne n m community, fellowship, companionship
ma_d`um (ma_dm) ma_d`mes, (g`e)mae_ne, ma_n g`ema_na
PC1 madman, Orm maddmess, imaen, man ~at`, Lmn mad`mes madmes, imane, AW imeane, MED madmes, imene, mon, imone

1 2

May` n m
May
PC1 Maies, Lmn Maei, SO Mai, Ch May
L Maius, AN Mai

1 2

mael n nt
period of time, occasion; meal, feast; mark, sign, cross, ornament
daelmael adv piecemeal, bit by bit
mae_l dae_l~um
PC1 mael (e), Orm maeless, Lmn mael mele, HA dae_lmae_le
maelen v w
speak, talk, discuss, narrate, make a speech
mae_lan
Orm maelenn, AW mealed` mealde, MED melen

1 2

maenen v w
mean, intend; lament, bemoan, complain
mae_nan
Orm menenn, AW meanen, MED menen
maere adj
famous, illustrious
maeren v w celebrate, proclaim
maert`e n f fame, glory, exploit
mae_r~e ~an ~d`u
PC2 maere, Orm maere, Lmn maere, MED mere merthe (maerd`e)
maet` n f
measure, proportion; restraint, self-discipline, temperance, moderation; capacity, ability
maet`en v w restrain, quell, regulate
unmaet` n intemperance, excess
maet`laes n unrestrained, importunate
maet`lic, maet`ful adj temperate, moderate, abstemious
unmaet`lic adj severe
unmaet`li_ce adv exceedingly
mae_t` ~lic ~ful ~le_as (g`e)~ian
Orm maet`, Lmn maed`e, AW mead` un~ ~ful ~leas un~lich
mey` n m
kinsman, relation, parent
mey`raeden n affinity, friendship
mey`t` n f clan, tribe, nation, stock, race, people
mage n m, pref son, young man; youthful
magg (~e) n m man; disciple
ma_ge n f kinswoman, female relative
may`den n nt girl, virgin, maiden; maid, servant
may`t` n f maiden, woman
mae_g` (e_) ma_gas (e_) mae_g`rae_den mae_g`d` (h), magu/maga, maecg(a), ma_ge, maeg`den maeg`t`
PC1 maei, Orm may`y`t`e, may`y`denn, Lmn maei meies, may`e, maiden, BH maey`d`a, mage, Ch mayden, MED mei maeith, moue (may`he)

1 2

me_d n f
reward, endowment, compensation, wages, pay, price, bribe, gift
me_d
Orm mede, AW mede, Ch mede, MED me_de
ime_de n nt, adj
consent, permission, agreement, covenant; agreeable, pleasant, adequate, suitable
a_nme_de n unanimity, concord
g`e~me_de a_n~
MED mede
medeme adj
middling, average; sufficient, considerable, respectable, fit, proper, worthy, trustworthy
medemen v w mete out, allot, assign; moderate; respect, honour; condescend
imedemen v advance, promote
medemlic adj moderate, mediocre, incomplete; adequate, suitable
medemlicnes n f mediocrity
medemnes n dignity, worth; condescension
medem~e (g`e)~ian ~lic` ~lic`nes ~nes
MED medeme ~n
melden v w
to announce, declare, proclaim; divulge, reveal, evince; inform against, call to account, accuse
meldian
MED melden

1 2

mere n f
mare, female horse
miere (e)
Owl mere, Ch mere

1 2

mete n m
food
aefenmete n dinner, evening meal
morgenmete n breakfast
mete, morgen~ ae_fen~
Orm mete, Lmn mete, AW mete
meten v s5; mat maeten imeten
measure, mete; traverse
met n nt measure, size, quantity; means, power
imet adj proper, suitable
metend (meted) n m measurer; God, fate
maete adj small, moderate, inferior
metan (ae ae_ e), (g`e)met, Metod, mae_te
Orm mett, Lmn mete, AW metet`, met, MED meten (mat)
me_ten v w; me_tte ime_ted/me_t
meet
imo_t n nt meeting, assembly, discussion, debate; forum, social media group
me_tan me_tte g`eme_ted/met(t), g`emo_t
PC1 mot, Lmn mete mette, AW mot, Owl mot, Ch meeten (mete) met, MED me_ten
micel (micl/mikel) adj/adv/n
big, great, intense; much, many
miclen v w increase, magnify
micellic adj magnificent, splendid, grand
micelnes n size; multitude, abundance; magnificence
ma_ cmp adv/n (adj) more; longer, further; in addition, besides
ma_re cmp adj/n (adv) bigger, larger; greater, stronger, more important; more
maest, ma_st sp adj/adv greatest; most, mostly
na_ ma_ adv anymore
u_tmaest (a_) adj utmost, extreme
mic`el (y) mic(c)le mic`el~e ~ian ~lic ~nes, ma_ ma_ra, mae_st (a_) u_t~
PC1 maest, PC2 micel, ma mare, Orm mikell miccle, ma mare mast, Lmn ma mare maest, AW meast, SO mest/mast, Ch muchel (mikel), mo(o) mo(o)re mo(o)st
According to Clark Hall there were two distinct series in OE, adjectival - mic`el ma_ra mae_st, and adverbial - micle ma_ mae_st. These merged in ME where both 'ma_' and 'ma_re' are used as adjectives and adverbs. Compare ME 'ma_re' which can mean 'bigger', 'bigger person or thing', 'bigger number or amount' and 'to a greater extent', with the ModE reflex 'more' which is only used in the latter two senses. ModE 'mo' (from 'ma_') is obsolete or dialectal.

1 2

mid prep, adv
with, by means of, during; at the same time
mid t`aem t`e conj when, while
mid, ~ t`ae_m t`e
PC2 mid, Orm midd, Lmn mid
midde (midden, mid) adj, n f, pref
mid, middle, midway, centre
onmidden, to_middes (amidde) prep, adv amid, amidst; in the midst
middel n nt, adj middle, waist; intermediate
midlen n nt town centre
midd ~an ~e ~el, on~an to_~es, ~an-g`eard
PC2 midewintredai, Lmn mid-festen middenerde a-midde, Owl amidde
mi_l (mi_le) n f
mile
mi_l
PC1 mile, Orm mile, Lmn mile
mis~ pref
mis~, badly, wrongly, awry, askew
mislic adj various, diverse, unlike
mis~ ~do_n, ~lic`
~do_n
mo_d n m
heart, mind, mood, spirit
mo_diy` adj spirited, daring, bold, courageous
mo_diy`lic, mo_dful adj proud, haughty
mo_diy`nes n pride, arrogance
a_nmo_dlic adj unanimous, consensual, accordant, concordant, like-minded, of one accord
micelmo_d adj magnanimous
a_nme_dle n nt arrogance, presumption; pomp
mo_d ~ful ~ig` ~ig`lic`, anme_dla
Orm mod ~iy`nesse, Lmn mod, Ch mood
mo_der n f nom/gen
mother
mo_dor mo_dra
PC2 moder, Orm moderr, Lmn moder, MED mo_der
morgen n m
morning
to_morgen tomorrow
morgen
PC1 on morgen, Lmn mory`en-liht, AW marhe(n), MED morwe to~

1 2

mo_ten v ptpr; mo_t most pr, moste pt
may, be allowed
mo_tan mo_t mo_st, mo_ste
PC2 moste, Orm mot motenn, mosste, Lmn mot most moten, moste
mugen (magen) v ptpr; may` miht, mihte
can, be able; could
ofermugen v prevail, have greater power than
hu_ miht t`u_ exp how are you
may`en n nt strength, power; moral force; efficacy
may`enfast adj vigorous, strong
miht (maht) n f; (al)~iy` strength, power, might
maeg` miht (ea/ae) magon (ae) mihte, maeg`en (e) ~faest, miht (ea) ael~ig`
PC1 maei magen mihte mihton, PC2 mai mihte (y) muhten, Orm may`y` mihht (a) muy`h`enn mihhte ~st ~n, mahht all~iy` mihht, Lmn maei miht muy`en (a), main, AW mein, mihte, Owl miy`te, Ch may mowe(n) myghte ~st ~n, myght, MED main
imunen v w; (iman imanst pt pr)
remember, consider, keep in mind
mi_nd n f; ~iy` adj thought, mind
imi_nd n f memory, remembrance
imi_ndday` n m anniversary
mine n m; ~lic adj affection, favour, desire; memorial
mingen v w remember; remind, mention
minten v w; minte imint mean, intend
iminten v w resolve; ordain
manen v w admonish, exhort, impel
g`emunan g`eman g`emanst (g`emune g`emont`), mynd g`e~ ~daeg`, myne, (g`e)myndgian (myngian myneg`ian), (g`e)myntan, manian (o/y)
PC2 gemunan gemunde, PC2 mint, Orm munndenn, minde, Lmn munien muney`ede, imunten, AW munde, munedai, munien muneget`, i-mint, Gaw mynged, MED imunen (gemuned` 1150), mi_nd(e), min(e), mingen, minten
naddre n f
adder, viper, snake
nae_dre (naeddre/ne_dre)
PC2 nadres, Orm neddre, Ch naddres

1 2

name n m
name, adjective
nama
PC1 nama (nam), Orm name, SO name
~ ~ ~
neb n nt; nebbes pl
face, complexion; beak
neb-re_ding n f cosmetics
neb(b)
Lmn neb nebbes, AW neb nebbe, MED neb
~
ne_h prep, adj, adv
near; nigh; nearby, nearly
ne_r cmp adv; ~re adjnearer
ne_hst cmp nearest, next
endene_hst adj last, final, extreme
wel ne_h adv almost, virtually
naen adv from near by
inaehwen, naelaecen v w; ~cte approach, draw near
ney`en v w approach, accost, address; attack
ne_ah (e_) ne_ar ~ra ni_ehst, endene_hst, ne_an, g`ene_ahwian ne_alae_can nae_g`an
PC2 neh, wel ~, Orm neh(h), ner, Lmn neh, wel ~, neor, nexte, AW neor ~re, neste (x), Ch neigh, ne(e)r, nexte, neighen
ne_tenv s2; naet nuten inoten
use, employ, make use of
ne_tsum adj fruitful, thriving
noten v w use, employ, consume, partake
note n f use, enjoyment, benefit, undertaking, business
ne_otan (e_a u o), noti~an ~u
Orm notesst, Lmn neotsume inoted, AW notien, Ch note
net`en adv; be~ prep
beneath, underneath, below
net`er (nit`er) adv; ~ward beneath, below, downstairs
net`ere adj lower, nether
net`eren adj depress, lower, bring down
neot`an be~, nit`er (eo) ~a ~ian
PC1 bened`an, Orm binet`enn, nit`t`renn, Lmn bi-neod`en, neod`er (i) ~ien, AW neod`er ~a, Ch benethen, nether, MED nethen bi~ nether
ne_we (ni_w~) adj
new
ne_wen adv recently
ni_w~e (e_o) ~en
PC2 neuuae, Orm new ~enn, Ch new(e)
nigen num
nine
nigente_ne num; nigente_nt`e ord nineteen
nigentiy` num; nigentiget`e ord ninety
nigent`e ord ninth
nigon ~ti_ene (hund)~tig` nigot`a (nigende) nigonte_od`a hundnigonte_ot`a
Orm niy`h`enn niy`h`ennde, Lmn niy`en niy`entene, AW nihe(ne) nihed`e, Ch nyne nyn(e)tene nynety nynthe, PM 1175 ni(y`)ed`e (niy`ende), TH 1200 niged`e, Ayb 1340 ney`ende, GC 1300 niy`entet`e, TB 1398 nyntent`e, MED ni_n ~te_n(e) ~ti_ ~the ~te_nth(e) ~ti_the
niht n f
night, darkness
aniht, nihtes adv/gen at night
niht (ea/ae)
PC2 niht, Orm nahht nihht, AW niht
nimen v s4 irr; nam (o_) na_men (o_) inumen
take, assume, accept, receive, seize, catch
benimen v deprive, rob
daelnimen v partake, participate
fornimen v destroy
undernimen v perceive
niman be~ dae_l~ for~ under~ (a/o_ a_/o_ u)
PC1 delnimende, PC2 (be)nam namen, Orm nimenn namm, Lmn nom, SO nam, MED nimen
ni_t` n m; ~ful adj
malice, enmity, spite; violence, persecution, oppression
ni_t` ~ful
Orm nit` ~ful, AW nid`
nort` n/adj/adv; ~erne ~ward
north
nort`en adv from the north
nort` ~an ~erne ~ward
Orm norrt`, Lmn nord`, Owl nort`
nose n f
nose
nosu
HA nosu, Lmn neose, Ch nose
nu_ adv, conj
now
nu_ t`a_ adv presently, currently
nu_
PC2 nu, Orm nu, Lmn nu
iniht n f/nt
abundance, plenty, sufficiency
nihtsum adj; ~nes abundant, plentiful, satisfied, content
nihtsumen v w abound, suffice
g`enyht (i) ~sum ~sumian ~sumnes
MED nihtsumien
of prep/adv
of, from, out of; off, away, absent
afere n m offspring, successor, heir; descendant
aften adv from behind, from the rear
after prep/adv after, along, according to, in pursuit of; afterwards
afterre adj cmp next, latter
aftreste adj sp last
afward (o) adj absent
eft adv, pref again, once more; afterwards, in turn
of, eafora (eafra), aeftan, aefter ~ra aeftresta, aefweard (o), eft (ae)
PC2 of, efter (ae), eft, Orm off/o, affterr, efft, AW eft, Ch of, after
ofer prep, adv, pref
over
ofer
PC1 ofer, PC2 ouer, Orm oferr
pref - see ~cumen, ~mugen, ~swi_t`en etc
oft adv; ~er ~est
often
oft
PC2 oft, Orm offte, SO oft
on (a) prep/adv
on, at, in, to, for; on top, onward
on/an
PC2 on, Orm onn/o, AW o(n), Ch on/an/a
Ch an huntyng > ModE a-hunting (we will go)
orped adj
adult, active, valiant, bold
orped ~li_ce
Ayb orped, MED orped
ot` prep
until, up to, as far as
ot`~ pref away, off
ot`-t`at, ot`-t`e conj until
ot`
PC1 od`, HR od`, MED oth ~that
o_t`er adj, ord num
other, second; one of two, another
o_d`er
PC2 ot`er ot`re, Orm ot`err, Lmnot`er
ot`t`e conj
or
od`d`e
PC1 od`d`e, MED oth-the (od`e)
pi_pe n f
pipe
pi_pen v w play on a pipe; peep, cheep, squeak
pi_pe pi_pian
Lmn pipen, MED pi_pe pi_pen
pley`e n m
play, merriment, festivity, drama, sport, movement
pley`en v w play, disport, exercise, move, act out, amuse oneself
plega (ae) pleg~an (~ian)
Lmn pley pleoy`ede, AW pleien, Ch pley, MED pleien
e

1 2

rake n m
rake, hoe
raken v w rake
raca
Ch rake, MED rake

1 2

ra_sen v w
explore
rasian
Lmn rusien riseden, AW risede

1 2 3

raed adj
red
re_ad
PC1 read, Lmn raed, AW read, Ch red reed
raed n m
advice, counsel, resolution, deliberation; benefit, remedy
raeden v w; raedde iraed (s7 re_d re_den iraeden) advise, deliberate, decide; read
raeden n f condition, terms, rule, estimation
araed adj resolute
araeden v prophesy, appoint
fastraed adj sound, astute
manraed (~en) n homage, tribute
unraed n; ~iy` adj indiscretion
raedesman n councillor
raedbore n adviser, counsellor
raedlic adj advisable
rae_d ~an re_d re_don rae_dde g`erae_d(en), manrae_den
PC2 raed manred, Orm raediy` redenn radde redd, Lmn raed (ea) raeden radde (ae) raedden
raewe (a_) n f
row, line, succession
raewed v w arranged in rows
ra_wen v w cut in strips
rae_w (a_) ~ed, ra_wan
AW rawe (ea), Ch rewe (o), MED reue
reccen (recken) v w irr; rohte
care, care for, heed; correct, reprove, judge, decide, direct, control, rule, govern
reccelaes adj reckless
reccelic (reclic) adj methodical, direct, straight, detailed, circumstantial
reccend, reccere n ruler, guide, teacher, director
reccendo_m n rule, governance, oversight
reccennes n f direction, correction
rec`c`an rohte re_c`elae_s reclic` (rec`c`elic`) rec`c`~end ~endo_m (~ennes) ~ere
PC1 rohton, Orm rekkenn recket`t` rohhte, Lmn recchest rohte, Ch recche rekke roghte recheles
hwat me_ reccet` - what does it matter to me; OE reccen overlapped with both rae_can and rekenian - separated here somewhat to avoid confusion
reked n m
building, palace, hall
reced
rekenen (reknen) v w
count, reckon, calculate; recount, narrate, explain, interpret, tell
rekenere n money changer
rekennes (irekednes) n f account, narrative, history, interpretation
rake n f account, recounting, exposition, narrative, observation; path, track, passage
aerendrake n messenger, ambassador
recenian recednes (recennes), racu
Orm reccnenn, AW rikenin rikeneres, Ch rekenen/rekne rekned, MED rake/race
re_n n nt
ornament
re_nen v w prepare
ire_nen v arrange; adorn
(g`e)re_nian
MED re_nen
reps n m
response
ireps n nt blame, reproof, guilt
repsen v w blame, reprove
reps g`eresp repsan
MED reps
response in a church service - L responsorium
rerd n f/nt
voice, speech, outcry, clamour; meal, food
rerden v w speak, dine
irerd n language
elrerdiy` adj barbaric
rerdhu_s n nt eating room, refectory, restaurant
(g`e)reord ~ian el~(ig`) ~hu_s
Orm rerd, Lmn reordien elreordi, Owl rorde (eo), MED rerd(e) i~ ~en ireordunghus
ri_ce adj, n nt
powerful, high ranking; kingdom, dominion, authority
kineri_ce n kingdom
ri_csen v w rule, tyrannise
ri_ce, ri_csian (x)
PC2 rice, rixan, Orm riche, Lmn riche, MED ri_xen
riht n nt, adj
right, privilege, justice; right, proper, straight
rihten (i~) v w direct, amend, correct
rihtlic adj correct
rihtwi_snes adj impartiality, integrity
raecen v w irr; rahte reach, stretch
riht ~e ~lic`, (g`e)rihtan, rae_can v w rae_hte (a_)
PC2 rihte, Orm rihhte, Lmn raechen, AW riht, reached` rahte, Ch reche raughte
rihtlic` right, proper, just, fit, righteous; adapted, fitted; adv. virtuously; regularly; correctly, precisely
rime n m
rim, edge, border
day`~ n daybreak, dawn
sae~ n coast
rima daeg`~ sae~
Owl dai-rim, MED rime
ri_m n nt
number
ri_men v w count, account, enumerate
ri_mere n m computer, reckoner, calculator
ri_m ~an ~re
Orm rime ~nn, MED ri_me ~n
rink n m
man, warrior, soldier
rank adj proud, overbearing; strong
rinc, ranc
Orm rannc, Lmn rinkas, Gaw renk, MED rink, rank
ri_sen v s1; ra_s, risen irisen
rise, prevail, stand, be fit, be proper
ari_sen v arise, accrue
ri_san (a_ i i)
PC2 risen, Orm risenn ras, AW arised`, Ch risen roos risen
sal n nt
hall, room, chamber
be_r-sal n pub
wi_n-sal n wine bar
seld n nt palace, residence; throne, seat
iselde n m companion, cohabitor, roommate
sele n m house, dwelling
laefsele n bower of leaves
sael, sele le_af~
Lmn selde, Gaw sale, MED sal(e), selde
(~)
sa_r n nt, adj
pain, wound, sore, suffering; sore, painful
sa_riy` adj sad, sorry
sa_r ~ig`
PC1 sar ~i, Orm sariy`, AW sar ~i, Ch so(o)ng
sarwe (sare) n nt
device, contrivance, artifice, apparatus, machine; skill, cunning, trick, snare
ladsarwe n charger
sarwen v w deceive, dissimulate, cheat
serwen v w equip, fit out; contrive, devise, plan, plot
searo searwes, searwian, sierwan
MED sirwen
Saterday` (Satern~) n m
Saturday
Saetern~daeg` (Saeter~/Saeternes~)
Orm Saterrday`y`, Ch Saterday/Saturday
L Saturnus, Saturni dies > OE Saetern~, ModE Saturn
~
say`en (sey`/segg~) v w; say`de
say
foresay`en v predict
isay`en n f legend, tale, statement
secgan saeg`t` saeg`de, g`esaeg`en
PC2 saein/saegen saede, Orm sey`y`en segge sey`y`t` sey`y`de, Lmn saeid` saide, AW seggen seid` seide, Ch sayn sayde
scapen v s6; sco_p sco_pen iscapen
create, fashion, shape; allot
iscap n nt; ~ennes n f form, shape, creation
scaft (i~) n f creature; destiny, allotment
~scipe suff -ship; property, state
scieppan (o_ o_ a), g`esceap, (g`e)sceaft, -scipe
Orm shapet`t` shop shapenn, shaffte, Lmn scop, AW schaft, Ch shapen shop shape, MED -ship(e) (-scipe)
scat`e n m
injury, harm, hurt; criminal, foe, warrior
scat`en (skat`~) v w injure, harm, scathe
sc`ead`~a ~e ~ian, (g`e)sc`ed`d`an (o_ o_ ea),
skad`a
Orm unnshat`iy` ~nesse skat`elaes, skat`~esst ~edd, Lmn scad`e, Ch scathe/schat`e, MED shathe i_shathnes scath(e) scet`t`e, scathen shathien scet`t`en
sce_ (heo) pron sg3 nom
she
hire acc/gen/dat her, hers
he_o hi_e hire
PC1 heo, PC2 scae hire, Orm y`h`o hire, Lmn heo/y`e hire, AW heo/ha hire, Owl h(e)o hire, SO sche (hye) hir, Ch she hir(e)/her(e)
possible developments - OE se_o (si_e) def > */sje:/ > */S`e:/ ?, OE he_o (hi_e) pron > */hje:/ > */C``e:/ ?; cp Hav sho, Gaw scho
scaewen v w
look, observe, examine; show, indicate
scaewere n m observer, spectator; mirror
laesscaewere n spy
sce_ne adj beautiful; bright
sc`e_awian g`e~, sc`e_awere le_as~, sc`i_ene
PC1 scawe, Orm shaewenn, shene, Lmn scaewede, scene, AW schawen, schene
e
sce_ten v s2 tr/intr; scaet scuten iscoten
shoot, launch; rush, dart
atsce_ten v escape, disappear, pass away
scot n nt shot, shooting, rush
iscot n tribute, payment, contribution, tax
scatt n m treasure, money, wealth, property; coin
sc`e_otan (e_a u o) aet~, sc`ot g`e~, sc`eatt
PC1sceattas, Orm shetenn, Lmn sceoten scaet scuten iscoten, MED she_ten, shot i~, shat

1 2

scip n m
ship, boat, sea-going vessel
scip scipu
PC1 scipa, Lmn scip ~e, AW schip, Ch ship
scop n m
minstrel, singer, poet
sc`op (eo)
Lmn scopes, MED scop
scoppe n m
shop, booth, workshed
scoppen v w shop, go shopping
sceoppa
Ch shoppe, MED shoppe
scraede n f
shred, cutting, scrap, coupon
ofslehtscraede n discount coupon
scre_ad
AW schreaden, MED shrede
scri_fen v s1; scra_f scrifen iscrifen
confess, make confession; absolve, hear confession
scri_fan (a_ i i)
Orm shrifenn, Lmn scriuen scraf, AW schriue schraf ischriuen
sculen v ptpr; scal scalt, sculde (o)
must, have to, shall, be obliged; should
scild n f offence, fault, crime, guilt
scildiy` adj guilty
sc`ulan sc`eal sc`ealt sc`ulen sc`(e)olde, (g`e)sc`yld ~ig`
PC2 sculde, Orm shall shallt shulenn shollde, Lmn scal scalt scullen, AW schulde
sae n m/f
sea
Saeland n nt Zealand
e_ger n nt; ~straem flood, high tide; sea
holm n m wave, sea, ocean
mere n m; ~stre_t sea, ocean; lake, pond, pool
su_nd n nt swimming; sea, ocean, sound
sae_, e_gor ~stre_am, holm, mere ~strae_ta, sund
PC2 sae, Orm sae, marr, Lmn sae, sund, MED mere
se_cen v w irr; sohte
seek, search
bese_cen v beseech, entreat
t`urhse_cen v scour, scrutinise
sake (sac) n f dispute, strife, contest, cause, sake, trial, prosecution, lawsuit; conflict, battle, feud, sedition
andsac n denial, refusal, resistance; abjuration
andsake, isake, wit`ersake n adversary; denier, apostate
saken v s6; so_k so_ken isaken dispute, wrangle, strive, contend, compete
forsaken v forsake, reject, desist, object
so_ken n f inquiry, inspection, search, persecution; jurisdiction
se_c`an sohte be~, sacu saec`c` sacan (o_ o_ a) for~, and~saca ~saec` g`esaca, so_cn
PC1 saca, socne, Orm sekenn t`urrh~ sohht, sake forrsoc forrsokenn forrsakenn, Lmn sake forsaken, socn, AW seched`, Owl sechet`, Ch seche(n) (k), soken
sefe n m
mind, spirit, heart, understanding
sefa
segg n m
man, warrior, knight, follower; reed
ga_rsegg n ocean
secg, ga_r~
Lmn seg segges, MED segge
se_k adj
sick
se_oc
PC1 seoc, Orm sec, AW sec seke, Ch seke
se_l (sael) n m/f, adj; ~t` n f
occasion, opportunity, time; happiness, joy, good fortune, prosperity; good, brave, skilled; fitting
ise_liy` adj; ~e fortunate, happy, blessed
se_lre adj cmp better
se_lest adj sp best
ise_lth n f discretion, prudence
isaelen v w befall, turn out favourably
sae_l (e_) (g`e)~t` g`e~ig`(e) g`e~an, se_l ~ra ~est
Orm sel sellt`e, Lmn sel iseli sel~ere ~est, MED se_l(e) ise_li(y`) se_lthe i~
self pron; ~e dat/pl
self, same
self
PC1 selue, Orm sellf ~e, Lmn seolf
sellen v w irr; sa_lde
give, supply, sell; give up
sellan (eo/i/y) sealde (g`e)seald
PC1 saelde, Orm sellenn, Lmn seollen salde, AW sullen salde, Ch selle(n) solde
en
se_n (sehen) v s5 irr, n f; se_ se_t` (sehe seht`), sah saegen isegen
see, perceive; vision
bese_n v look, watch; provide
ferse_n n television
forse_n v reject, overlook
forese_n v foresee
ise_n v observe
ise_ne adj evident, apparent, visible
t`urhse_n v perceive
siht` n f sight, vision, aspect
besiht` n provision
se_on se_o siehst sieht` (si_t`), seah sa_won (sae_gon) sewen (segen), si_en g`esi_ene, sihd` g`e~
PC1 sed` (eo) saegon/sawon segon, Orm seo sest set` (eo), sahh saey`h`enn sey`h`enn, t`urrhset`, sihht`e, AW sihd`e, Owl sen isene, Ch se_(n) seyen/sawe, MED se_n (seiy`en, se_ghe)
cp ifehen (fe_n)
sefen num
seven
sefente_ne num; sevente_nt`e ord seventeen
sefentiy` num; sefentiget`e ord seventy
sefent`e ord seventh
seofon ~ti_ene (hund)~tig` ~-te_od`a (~teoged`a) hund~tigod`a, seofot`a
PC1 seoued`ende, Orm se(o)fenn/seffne sefennde seofenntiy`, Lmn seouen ~tene, AW seuene seoued`e seouenti, Ch seven~e ~nth(e) ~tene, VH 1150 seofod`e, LH 1225 seofed`e, Hav 1300 seuen~t`e ~tent`e, GC 1300 seuentit`e, StA 1350 seuentet`e, MED seven ~the ~te_n(e) ~ti_ ~te_nthe ~ti_the
~
sex num
six
sexte_ne num; sexte_nt`e ord sixteen
sextiy` num; sextiget`e ord sixty
sexte ord sixth
siex ~ta ~tig`, sixty_ne (e_), sixte_od`a sixteogod`a (i)
PC1 sex sixtiga, Orm sexe sex~tene ~tiy` ~te, Lmn sixe six~tene ~ti, AW six ~tene ~tend`e, SO sexti, Ch sixe sexti, VH 1150 sixtuged`en, WB 1382 sixtithe, MED six ~te_ne ~ti_ ~te ~e_nthe ~i_the
-
singen v s3; sang sungen isungen
sing
sa_ng n m song, psalm, poem
singan (a u u), sang
PC1 sang sungen, Orm singet`t` sungenn, sang, Lmn singen isunge, song

1 2

sinken v s3; sank sunken isunken
sink
sincan (a u u)
Orm sinnket`t` sunnkenn, AW sinken sunken
sink n nt
treasure, ornament
sinc
sit`en (sit`t`e) adv/conj
afterwards, after, subsequently, since
si_t`, si_t`re comp adv; si_t`est later; afterwards
sit`t`a(n) (eo/y), si_d` ~or ~est ~li_c`e
PC2 syt`en, Orm sit`t`enn, sit`reCh sithen, MED si_theli_

1 2

si_t` n m
journey, venture, adventure, exploit; time, occasion
si_t`en v w journey
isi_t` n companion
midsi_t`en v accompany
isi_t`scipe n company, fellowship, society
senden v w; sende isend send
asenden v send off, submit
si_t` ~ian g`e~ mid~ian g`e~~scipe, sendan sende g`esend
PC2 senden, Orm sit`e, senndenn sennde sennd, Lmn sid` ~en, MED si_th ~en
sitten v s5; sat saeten iseten
sit
besitten v surround, besiege
setten v w; sette iset set, seat, place, arrange
besetten v appoint, adorn, invest
sadel n m saddle
saete n m sitting, session; region, site, land-holding
sess n m seat, bench
set n nt seat, camp
iset, saet n nt; f ambush, snare
setel n nt seat, stall, bench, sitting, throne; place, residence, abode
setle n assessor, judge; companion
setlen v w tr settle, place, put
isetel n nt assembly
sittan be~ (ae ae_ e), settan be~ sette g`eset(t), sadol, sae_t(a), sess, (g`e)set, setl (setol) g`e~ ~an
PC2 sitten besaet, sette, setle, Orm sittenn satt saetenn, setten be~, saete, Lmn sat saeten seten, setten sette iset, sadele, saettele, AW sitten, setten, seotel, MED setle, sete
siy`e (siger) n m; ~fast adj
victory, success, triumph
sig`e sigor ~faest
PC1 sige, Orm siy`e siy`y`efasst, Lmn siy`e
en ~
sla_w adj
slow, slothful, sluggish
sla_wen v w avoid, neglect, be slow to act
sla_w
Orm slaw, AW slaw, MED slou ~en
slaen (slahen) v s6 irr; slae slaet` (slahe slaht`), slo_h slo_gen islay`en (g)
strike; slay; beat, forge
islaen v win, gain, conquer
sleht, slege n m/nt stroke, blow; slaughter
ofsleht n discount
(g`e)sle_an (sla_n) slieht` (slae_ht`) slo_h slo_gon g`eslaeg`en/slagen, slieht (ea)
PC2 sloghen, Orm slaen/slan slast slaet`/slat` sloh sloy`h`enn slay`enn, Lmn slaen slaed` sloh sloy`en, slehte (ae), AW slead` sloh slohen, slaht, Ch slee(n) slough/slow slowe(n) slayn/slawe, MED sle_n, slaught
pOE *slahan; cp Goth/OSax/OHG slahan, OFrs sla, ON sla__; cp flaen (flahen)
~
sle_pen v s7 (w); sle_p sle_pen isle_pen (slepte islept)
sleep
sle_p n m sleep
slae_pan (e_ e_ ae_) (slepte g`eslept), slae_p
PC2 slepen slep, Orm slaepenn slepptenn, Lmn slaepen slaep(te), AW slepen slepte, MED sle_p ~en

1 2

1 2

slo_h n m
mire, mudhole, swamp
slo_ges gen/pl mudholes, swamps
slo_h (slo_g) slo_ges/slo_s
AW sloh, Ch slow/slough
snel adj; ~le w/pl
fast, rapid, swift, quick; keen, brisk, active
snell ~ic`e snelnes
Lmn snelle, Owl snel ~le, MED snel
sni_t`en v s1; sna_t` sniden isniden
cut; make an incision, hew; slaughter, sacrifice
snīd`an (a_ i i)
Orm snit` snat`, MED sni_then
snoter adj; ~nes n f ~scipe n m
clever, prudent, intelligent, cunning
snittre n f cleverness, prudence, sagacity
snotor ~nes ~scipe, snyttru
Orm snoterr, MED snoter

1 2

so_n n m
sound
so_ncraft n music
so_n
AW seon, Ch soun, MED soun (son)
so_ne adv
soon, immediately
eftso_ne adv soon after, again
so_na eft~
PC2 sona efsones, Orm sone, MED sone eft-so_ne(s)
sorge (h) n f; ~ful
sorrow, grief, care
sorgen v w be sorry, grieve, care
sorg (h) ~ful ~ian
Orm serry`he serrhfull, Lmn sorh sor(h)y`e, sory`eden, AW sorhe, sorhin, MED sorwe (sorge), sorwen (zory`en)
so_t` n nt, adj; ~lic adj
truth, reality; true
se_t`en v w declare, affirm, testify
sinne n f; ~iy` ~ful ~laes adj sin
sinnen (siny`en) v w sin, transgress
so_t` ~lic`, se_d`an, syn(n) ~ig` ~lic` ~le_as synna, sinnian sing`ian (g)
PC1 sod`, PC2 sotlice, sinnes, Orm sot`, sinne, sinny`h`et`t`, AW sunegen, Owl sot`, sunne, sunegi, Ch synneth, MED so_th, sinne, se_then, sinnen (sinwen)
spe_d n f
success, luck, prosperity, abundance; speed
spe_den v w; spedde succeed, prosper; afford; assist
spe_d ~an
PC2 spedde, Orm spedenn, Ch speden spedde
he_ spe_det` to_ it - he can afford it
speken (spreken) v s5; spak spaeken ispeken
speak
ferspeken v telephone, speak by phone
forespeke n advocate, mediator, intercessor, sponsor
forespeken adj, v aforesaid, aforementioned; intercede
onspeken v accuse, address
onspeke, onspekend n accuser, claimant
to_speken v address
spe_c (spraec) n f speech, discourse, language
forespe_c n advocacy
u_tspe_c n pronunciation
sprecan on~ to_~ (specan) (ae ae_ e) onspeca onspecend forespreca, sprae_c`(e) (spae_c`/spre_c`) fore~
PC2 spac, Orm spekenn spacc spaekenn, spaeche, Lmn speken, speche (ae), AW speche, Ch speke(n) spak
cp ModG Aussprache, ModDu uitspra_k
spilen v w
play, revel, do sport
spilian
MED spilen
e
standen v s6 irr; sto_d sto_den istanden
stand
atstanden v make a stand, remain, resist
forstanden v be of use, avail, protect, defend; prevent, oppose
u_tstanden v stand out
stael n m place, position
staelen v w institute, found; impute, avenge
stal n m/nt; ~les pl place, foundation, site; stall
istal n m/nt; ~les pl frame, structure
istalle n m companion
stat` n nt bank, shore
stat`el n m foundation, framework, base, staddle
stat`elen v w establish, fix; confirm
stede n m place, site, stead
webstede n web site
stellen v w irr; stalde put, place, pack; set, establish, institute
eftstellen v reset
istald n nt dwelling, habitation
stemne (stefne) n m stem, trunk, foundation; prow, stern
stemnetten n m stand firm
stille adj still, silent, motionless, meek
sto_l n m stool, seat, chair
standan standet`/stent, sto_d sto_don g`estanden aet~ for~, stae_l ~an, steall g`e~ g`e~e, staet`, stad`ol (g`e)~ian, stede ~faest burg~, stefn (stemn) ~ettan, stellan stealde, stille, sto_l
PC2 forstode, Orm stannd~enn ~et`t` (stant) stod stodenn unnderr~ stede stille, Lmn stat`el stol stat`e, AW stalde istald, Ch stonde(n) (a) stont/stondeth stede stille stol, MED stathelen stal(le) stem(me), stellen stolde
also - under~standen with~; rel sto_w
stefne (stefen) n f/m
voice, sound; message, summons, turn
ne_we stefne adv anew, again
stefn, ni_wan ~e
PC1 stefne, Orm steffne, AW steuene/stefne, Ch stevene
step- pref
step
step-mo_der n f stepmother
ste_op-mo_dor -sunu etc
Lmn steop-moder step-sune, MED step-barn -bro_ther -chi_ld -doughter -fader -mo_der -sone -suster
steppen v s6 irr; sto_p sto_pen istapen
step, go, advance
stape n step
steppan (ae) (o_ o_ a) staepe stapas
Lmn steppen stop, Owl stape (ea), Ch stopen (a) steppes, MED steppen step
sterfen v s3; starf sturfen istorfen
die, starve
steorfan (ea u o)
PC2 sturuen, AW steorued` stearf istoruen, Ch sterue starf ystorue
stihten v w
arrange, direct, rule
astihten v to determine, decree, agree upon
stihtan a_~
MED stighten
e
sto_w(e) n f
place, locality, spot
aerdingsto_w n dwelling, residence, abode, lodging
websto_w n website
sto_w eardung~
Lmn stowe, Owl eardingstowe, MED stou(e)
caep~
strand n nt
beach, seashore
strand
Orm strande, Lmn stranden, Ch strondes
straem n m
stream, current, river
stre_am
Lmn straem, Ch stre(e)m
streccen v w irr; strahte
stretch, extend, straighten
strec`c`an streahte
Lmn streahte (a), AW streched` strahte, Ch strecchen straughte
stre_n n nt
gain, acquisition, property, treasure; traffic, usury; procreation
stre_nen v w acquire, gain, amass; increase, augment; beget
stre_on (g`e)stri_enan (e_o/y_)
Orm stren (eo) ~enn ~edd, Lmn streone streonede, AW streon ~ed`, MED stre_n ~en
stre_t (ae) n f
street, road
strae_t (e_)
Orm straete, AW strete, MED stre_t
stu_nd n f
hour; moment, period, time
stund
Orm stund, Lmn stunde, Ch stounde
~
sum adj, pron, suff
some, a certain; one, someone
sume adj pl some, certain; some people, certain ones
sumes gen? little, a little; somewhat, to some extent
simble adv always, continually, continuously
sin~ pref continual, perpetual, permanent, immense
sum, sin-, simble
PC2 sum ~e, Orm summ, Ch som, MED simle (simble)
sune n m
son
sunu
PC2 sune, Orm sune, Lmn sune

1 2

su_nd (i~) adj
sound, safe
far su_nd, faret` su_nd exp goodbye
g`esund, far(at`) ~
Orm sund, Lmn sund
sunne n f
sun
Sunnenday` n m Sunday
sunne, Sunnandaeg`
PC2 sunne, Sunnen daei, Orm sune sunness, sunennday`y`, Lmn sunne
su_t` n/adj/adv; ~erne ~ward
south
su_t`en adv from the south
su_t` ~an ~erne ~ward
Orm Sut`, Lmn sud`
swa_ adv/conj
so, as
swa_ t`aeh adv nevertheless
alswa_ adv also, likewise, moreover, then, thus
als (~e) conj as, so
swa_ same adv/conj therefore; like
swa_, eallswa_ (allswa_/alswe_)
PC2 swa, alsua, als(e), Orm swa, all swa, alls (~e), Lmn swa, al swa, AW swa/se, alswa, as, Ch so, also, als
'alswa_' and 'als' were interchangeable to an extent, until the 15th century
swa_men v w intr
darken, become dark
aswa_men abate, cease, die away
swa_mian a_~
swaer adj
heavy; oppressive, grievous; sluggish
swae_r (a_)
Orm sware, MED swere (swaerere)
swelten v s3; swalt swulten iswolten
die, perish; swoon, faint
sweltan (ea u o) sweltet`/swylt
PC1 swelte swulten, Orm swelltenn swallt swulltenn, Lmn swelten swaelt
swey` n m
melody, song; sound, din, clamour
swey`en v w make a noise, sound, roar, crash
swo_gen v s7; swe_h swe_gen iswo_gen swoon, faint; to sound, roar, rustle, rattle
aswo_gen v choke
swe_g` ~an, swo_gan (e_o e_o o_) a_~
Orm suhhy`henn, Lmn iswoy`en, BH 1175 swey`e, MED swei, swouen
ON sveigja > MED sweien (1325 rush, hurry; sway)
swencen v w; swencte
torment, oppress, afflict
swenc`an swencte
PC2 suencten, Orm swennchenn, AW swenchen
causative of swinken
swe_r n m
father-in-law
iswe_r n cousin
swey`er n f mother-in-law
swe_or g`e~, sweg`er
MED sweor
swerd
sword
sweord (u/y/o)
PC1 sweord, Orm swerd, SO swerd
swet`ren v w intr
retire, vanish, melt, abate, dwindle, decrease, subside
iswet`ring n failure
swed`rian g`eswed`rung
swilc adj/pron
such
swilc hwilc conj such as
alswilc adj just such
alswilc alse conj just as
swilc` (ae/e/y, swa_li_c) eall~
PC2 suilc alsuic, Orm swillc swillke, MED swich
OE alt swylc` > ME alt swu(l)ch > ModE such
swi_t` adj
strong, powerful, active
swi_t`e adv very, quite, greatly, severely
swi_t`re adj cmp right, right hand
swi_t`en v w strengthen
oferswi_t`en v overcome, overpower, conquer, vanquish; excel, surpass
unoferswi_t`endlic adj invincible, unconquerable
swi_t` ~e ofer~an ofer~endlic`
PC1 swid`e, PC2 suythe, Orm swit`e, Ch swithe
~
si_fre (si_fer~) adj
clean, pure, chaste; sober, abstinent, temperate
si_feraete adj abstemious
si_fernes n f cleanliness, purity, sobriety, moderation
sy_fre si_fer~ae_te ~lic ~nes
MED si_fre
~
tellen v w irr; ta_lde
tell, inform, recount, narrate
bi_tellen v speak for, defend, justify, excuse
untellendlic adj indescribable, unspeakable
tale n f tale, fable, story, narrative
ital n nt number, series
talen v count, calculate, reckon
italcraft n m arithmetic
tellan tealde, talu, (g`e)tael ~craeft, talian
PC2 tellen un~dlice, Orm tellenn talde tald bitellenn, Lmn tellen bi~
tellan count, calculate, reckon; talu calculation
te_n num
ten
~te_ne num suf ~teen
te_nt`e (te_t`e) adj tenth, ~teenth
ti_en te_ot`a t`re_o~ti_ne (i_e/y_) t`re_o~te_ot`a
PC1 ten(n) t`reotted`an, Orm tene tende, Lmn ten(e), AW t`reotud`e, MED ten thri_te_ne te_nthe (te_t`e)
t`ri~te_ne, fower~, fif~, sex~, sefen~, ehte~, nigen~; t`ri~te_nt`e etc

1 2 3

te_n v w
prepare, furnish, arrange, adorn, deck
te_on
te_hen (te_n) v s2; te_he te_ht` (te_ te_t`), taeh tugen itogen
draw, tow, tug, pull
~toge n m, suff leader
te_h n nt; te_ges matter, material
te_on (e_a u o) ty_hst tie_ht` (e_), ~toga, g`ete_oh
AW teon teod` tuhen, MED te_n (tegh te_d`/tihd` tgen togen)
pOE *te_ohan; cp OS tiohan, OHG ziohan; cp fle_n; PG *teugą n 1 device used for pulling; 2 tools; equipment; stuff
te_on withdraw, go; draw near, approach

1 2 3 4

te_ne n m
insult, injury
te_nen v w harm, harrass, annoy, oppress, torment, distress
ofte_nen v anger
te_ona te_onian
Orm tene, Ch tene, MED te_ne te_nen of~

1 2

t`a_ adv, conj
then, when, at that time
t`a_
PC2 t`a, Orm t`a, Ch tho
t`afen (i~) v w
allow, permit, approve, consent, agree to, submit to; endure, tolerate, suffer
it`afe n m supporter, helper, favourer
(g`e)d`afian ged`afa
NED i-thave
t`aht n nt
advice, counsel
it`aht n f/nt consideration, deliberation; design, contrivance, scheme; council, assembly
t`ahten (i~) n f/nt ponder, consider, deliberate; counsel
it`ahte, it`ahtend, it`ahtere n adviser, counsellor
it`ahtendlic adj deliberative
t`eaht (g`e)t`eahtian g`et`eaht~a ~end ~ere ~endlic`

1 2

t`an (t`onne) conj
than
t`onne (t`anne/t`on)
PC2 t`an(ne), Orm t`ann, Ch then/than(ne), MED than
~
t`ank (i~) n m
thanks, gratitude, reward; thought, mind, reflection
t`anken v w thank
t`ankes adv willingly
unt`ankes adv/n unwillingly; unwillingness
t`ankwurth adj acceptable, memorable
aft`ank n m insult, offence; displeasure
t`enken (c) v w irr; t`ohte think, intend
bet`enken (c) v consider, reflect
t`inken (c) v w irr; t`uhte seem, appear
oft`inken (c) v offend, insult, grieve
t`oht (i~) n nt idea, thought
t`anc (o) ~ian ~ian ~weort` aef~ g`e~, t`enc`an be~ t`o_hte, t`ync`an of~ t`u_hte
PC2 t`ankes, Orm t`annkenn (unn)t`annkess, t`ennkenn t`ohhte t`ohht, t`innket`t` t`uhhte, AW t`enchen, t`unched` t`uhte, Owl t`inkt` (t`unch) t`uy`te of~, Ch thank (o) thanke(n), thenke(n) (ch), thynke(n)
t`anne (t`onne) adv
then, when
t`onne (t`anne/t`on)
Orm t`anne (t`ann/t`ane), AW t`enne, Ch than(ne)/thenne, MED thanne
t`e def, conj
the; which
t`at dem pron/adj nt, conj that; which
t`a_ dem pron/adj pl those
t`as adv/dem pron gen afterwards, thence, accordingly
t`as t`e conj after, since
t`i_, t`ae_m, t`an dem pron (for/mid ~) that
se t`one t`aes t`ae_m t`y_ t`aet se_o t`a_ t`ae_re t`a_ t`a_ra t`a_m; t`e, t`aet(te)
PC2 t`e t`at (ae/e) t`a, Orm t`e t`att t`a, Lmn t`at t`a, Ch the that tho
t`aeh, t`oh adv, conj
though, although, however
t`ohhwet`ere adv nevertheless
t`e_ah,
t`o_ *t`auh
PC1 t`eah, PC2 t`oh, t`ohuet`ere (ae), Orm t`ehh, t`ohh, t`ohhwhet`t`re, Lmn t`aeh, t`oh, Owl t`ey`
t`aer adv
there, where
t`aer fore adv for that purpose; therefore
t`aermid adv thereby, therewith
t`aerrihte adv at once, immediately
t`aerto_ adv besides, in addition; for that purpose, pertaining to it
t`enen (t`anen) adv thence, from there
t`ider adv; ~ward thither, to there
t` ae_r ~aet ~ big` ~in(ne) ~mid ~of ~on ~to_, t`anon (t`eonen), t`ider ~weard
PC1 t`aer ~ fore, t`e(o)non t`anon, PC2 t`aer (e) tharof, t`ider, Orm t`aer ~fore ~ fra ~off(e) ~one, t`iderr, Lmn t`eonene t`enne, t`ider, Chther ~ fore, thenne ~s, MED ther -at -mid -from -of -on -to_, thenne ~s
t`aer t`aer - there where; t`enen + ~es gen > t`ennes | cp ay`ean ~es
t`ey`n n m
servant, minister, retainer, vassal, follower, courtier
t`ey`nen v w administer, serve
t`eg`n ~ian
PC1 t`eignes/d`aeines, Lmn t`ein
t`enden conj/adv
while, as long as; meanwhile
t`enden
not a good fit for 'during'; required a verb in OE
t`e_d n f
people, nation, tribe, ethnic group; land, region, realm
it`e_de n language, speech
t`e_den v w, n m join, associate; prince
elt`e_d n strange people, foreign nation, foreigners
elt`e_diy`, elt`e_disc adj strange, foreign; barbarous, hostile; exiled
elt`e_diy`e adv abroad
undert`e_den v subjugate, add; addict, addicted
t`e_od g`e~e (g`e)~an under~an el~ el~ig`(lic`) el~isc
PC1 t`eode, PC2 undert`eden, Orm t`e(o)d ~e, Lmn t`eod, Owl t`eode, MED the_d(e) the_den
PC1/Orm/Owl t`eode pl
t`i_hen (t`e_n) v s1 irr; t`i_he t`i_ht` (t`e_ t`e_n), t`a_h t`igen (u) it`igen (o/it`ungen)
thrive, flourish, prosper, grow, increase, ripen
fullt`ungen (~t`igen) adj adult, grown-up
OE (g`e)t`e_on t`i_hd` t`e_ot`/t`i_gat` t`a_h/t`e_ah t`igon/t`ugon t`igen/t`ogen/t`ungen, fullt`ungen
Lmn t`eh it`eon it`aeh id`oy`en, Ch then thee ythe, MED the_n i~ (t`eah d`ogen t`ogen)
ProtG thinhana s3 > OS/OHG thi_han; shifted to s1 in most daughter languages, but OE has both sets of forms
t`ing n nt
thing, matter, affair; cause, motive, reason; creature, object; act, deed, event, enterprise
it`inge n nt meeting, council, covenant, agreement
t`ingen v w beg, ask, intercede, harangue; reconcile, conciliate, settle, determine, agree
d`ing g`ed`inge d`ingian
PC1 d`ing, PC2 t`ing, Orm t`ing, Lmn t`ing
t`is (~e) dem pron/adj
this
t`ise pl these
t`es t`isne t`ises t`isum m t`is t`is t`ises t`isum t`e_os t`a_s t`isse t`isse t`a_s t`a_s t`issa t`issum
PC1 t`is, Orm t`iss t`ise, Ch this thise, MED this thes(e)

1 2

t`ra_h (t`ra_ge) n f
occasion, turn; period, time
t`ra_g (h)
Orm t`ray`he, Owl t`roy`e, Ch throwe
t`re_ num
three
t`re_fa_ld (t`ri~) adv threefold
t`ri~ pref tri~, thir~
t`rines (~se) n f trinity
t`rite_ne (t`re_~) num; t`rite_nt`e ord thirteen
t`ritiy` num; t`ritiget`e ord thirty
t`ridde ord third
t`ri_e t`re_o, t`rifeald, t`rin(n)es, t`re_o-ti_ne (i_e/y_) t`reotty_ne t`re_ote_od`a (t`rytte_od`a), t`ri_tig` (t`rittig`) t`ri_tigod`a (t`re_otteogat`a), t`ridda
PC1 t`rittiga t`ridde t`reotted`an, PC2 t`re, Orm t`reo t`refald t`rittene t`rittiy` t`ridde t`rittende, Lmn t`reo t`ritti, AW t`reo ~fald ~ttene ~tud`e t`ridde, Ch thre thrittene thritty thridde, VH 1150 t`reottende, Rwl 1350 t`retet`e, MED thre_fold thrines(se) thrite_ne thriti thrid thrite_nth(e) thriti_the
t`riccen v w intr/tr; t`rihte (t`riccede)
press, push; print
fort`riccen v oppress, suppress
t`riccern n nt printery
t`rake n f pressure, force, violence
it`rac n nt throng, crowd
t`rece n m oppression
d`ryc`c`an (i) d`ryhte/d`rycte for~, t`racu g`et`raec t`rec`e
BH id`ryht, MED thricchen
d`ryc`c`an trample, crush; oppress, afflict
t`ri_t` n m
might, power, strength, vigour; majesty, glory, splendour
d`ry_d`
MED thri_th
t`u_ pron sg2 nom
you, thou
t`e_ acc you, thee
t`i_n (t`i_) gen your, thy, thine
t`u_ t`e_ t`i_n
PC1 t`e, t`in, PC2 t`u, Orm t`u, t`e, ti(n) t`in, Lmn t`u, t`e, t`i(n)
t`ung n m
poison, poisonous plant, wolfsbane, aconite
d`ung
MED thung
t`urfen v ptpr tr/intr; t`arf t`arft, t`urfte (o)
need; be obliged
t`arf n f need, necessity, distress
t`arfe adj; n m needy, indigent, destitute; one in need
t`arflic adj profitable, useful, necessary
it`arfen v w necessitate
t`urfen t`earf t`earft t`orfte, t`earf ~a, g`et`earfian, t`earflic`
Orm t`arrf t`urrfte, Lmn t`urfen, AW t`(e)arf t`urfte
t`urh prep, adv
through, during
t`irel n nt hole, orifice, aperture
e_gt`irel n window
nost`irel n nostril
t`irlen v w pierce, perforate; thrill
t`urh, t`yr(e)l ea_g~, t`yrlian
PC2 t`urhc, Orm t`urrh, Lmn t`urh, it`urlud, AW t`url ~in, Ch thirled, MED thirl ~en
t`us adv
thus
t`us
PC1 d`us t`us, Orm t`uss, MED thus
t`u_send num
thousand
t`u_send
PC1 t`usend, PC2 t`usen, Orm fif t`usennde, Lmn t`usend, Ch thousand
t`waere adj
united, concordant, harmonious; compliant, obedient, agreeable, pleasant, gentle, peaceful
t`waeren v w agree, consent, acquiesce, reconcile; suit, fit
t`waernes n f agreement, concord, peace; gentleness
(g`e)t`wae_re (g`e)t`wae_r~ian ~nes
thild n f; ~iy`
patience
(g`e)t`yld ~ig`
Orm t`ild, AW t`uldi, MED thild ~i
ti_hen (te_n) v s1; ti_he ti_ht` (te_ te_t`), ta_h tigen itigen
accuse, censure
ti_hend (te_nd) n accuser
te_on/ti_on ty_hst ti_ht` te_ot` te_ah tugon tygen
MED te_n (tegen/teo tyxste tiy`th)
OE te_on s1 (from pOE *ti_han) partly shifted to the conjugation of OE te_on s2 (from pOE *te_ohan); separated here to lessen confusion; cp OS af-ti_han, OHG zi_han; cp wri_hen li_hen t`i_hen
~tiy` suff num; twen~ t`ri~ fower~ fif~ sex~ sefen~ ehte~ nigen~
~ty
~tiget`e suff ord num ~tieth
~tigod`a (~eogat`a)
PC1 fowertiged`e, AW twentud`e t`rittud`e, TH 1200 fowertid`e fiftuged`e, VH 1150 sixtuged`en , MED twenti~eth thriti_~the fourti_~the fifti_~the sixti_~the seventi_~the eighteti_~the ni_nti_~the

1 2 3

til prep/conj
till, to; until
intil, until prep into, until, unto
til
PC2 til, Orm till inn~ unn~, MED til
tilen v w
till, cultivate, procure; to try, aspire to, endeavour, exert oneself, work
tilt` n f cultivation, tillage
til~ian ~d`
PC2 tilede, Lmn tilien tileden, PM tilth
til adj
excellent, useful
til
NED till
Ti_w n m
Germanic god of war
Ti_wesday` n m Tuesday
Ti_w ~esdaeg`
PC1 Tywesdaei (~ge), Lmn Tis-daei, MED Tiues-dai (tiwesday)
corresponds to Mars; possibly the chief god originally; cp L Deus
to_ prep, pref, suff, adv
to; too
to_
PC2 to, Orm to, Lmn to
~
tru_t` n m
trumpeter, buffoon, actor
tru_d`
MED trut`
twa_ num/adj f
two
atwa_, on twa_ adv apart, in two
itwaefen v w separate; deprive
twaemen (to_~) v w divide; divorce
twe_, twe_n n m; v w doubt
twelf num; ~te ord twelve
betwe_nen prep, adv between, among; meanwhile
twentiy` num; twentiget`e ord twenty
twey`en num/adj m, n pair, couple, twain
twiy`es adv twice
twe_g`en/twa_/tu_ on twa_, g`etwae_fan, (to_)twae_man, twe_o twe_og`an (twe_on) twe_ode, twelf ~ta, (be)twe_onan, twe_ntig`, twe_g`en, twi_ tuwa (twig`ea)
PC1 tweamde, twelf(e), twenti, twegen, twiges, PC2 twa, Orm twa, twellf(e) ~te, bitwenenn, twenntiy`, twey`y`enn, twiy`(y`)ess, Lmn atwa to-twemden, twelf, bi-twe(o)nen, twenti, tweien, AW atwa tweolfte twentud`e, Ch two a-~, betweene (i), twyes, BH 1175 atwa, MED twelfth, tweoy`ean
twadden v w
adore, worship
twadding n f adulation
twaddung (ae)
ufen adv
over, above, on high, on top; from above
onufen prep/adv above, upon, on; beyond, after
ufer comp adv further up
ufere comp adj later
ufan on~ ufor ufera
AW onuuen, MED oven onoven
rel bufen, up
under prep, adv
under
under
Orm unnderr, Lmn under, SO under
~fo_n, ~standen, ~enti_d, ~t`e_den
unnen v ptpr; an *anst, u_t`e iunnen
grant, allow, bestow
unnan an(n) unnen u_t`e
PC2 unne, Orm ut`e, AW unnen on ud`e, Owl an, MED unnen
up adv
up, upwards
uplic adj upper, lofty, supreme, sublime
upon (uppen) prep upon, on, up to, against
uppe adv above, aloft, inland
ippe n f high point, high seat, dais
u_p uppe uppan (upon) u_plic` yppe
PC2 up, Orm upp upponn, Lmn up(pe) uppen, AW up(pe) upon, MED up upon uppe
u_t adv
out
u_te adv outside, abroad
u_ten adv on the outside, without; from outside
wit`u_ten prep outside of, except
u_t ~e ~an
PC2 ut ute, wid uten, Orm ut, wit`t`utenn, Lmn uten, wid`-uten
~
wa_ (wae wa_we) n/interj
woe, misery, grief, adversity, misfortune; alas, oh
wa_s (wa_wes/wa_wen) pl woes
wa_la_, wa_la_wa_ interj alas
wa_ we_a (wa_wa) wa_la_ (wa_la_wa_)
Orm wa wawenn, Lmn wa wae wowe, AW wa wowes wala, Owl wolawo, MED wo we wowe

1 2

wadenv s6; wo_d wo_den iwaden
go, move, stride, advance; wade
(g`e)wadan (o_ o_ a)
Lmn wod, AW waden

1 2 3

wal n
slaughter, carnage, slain, battlefield
walhalle n f hall of the slain, Valhalla
walkiriy` n f witch, sorceress, Valkyrie
wael ~cyrig`e ~heall, walu
Lmn wael, MED wal, wal-kirie
wal n m; walles pl
wall
weall (a)
PC1 weallas, Orm wall, Lmn walles, SO wal, Ch wal walles

1 2

wa_lden v s7 we_ld we_lden iwa_lden; (we_lden v w)
rule, control, command, govern
iwa_ld n nt power, control, dominion, command
wa_lde adj omnipotent
wa_ldend n m Lord, ruler
wealdan (e_o e_o ea), g`eweald, wealda, wealdend
Orm weldenn, walde, Lmn welden/walden walt/walded`, AW welden walt, walde, MED we_lden (a), ModE wield
wa_ld n m
forest, wood, grove
weald
Lmn wald (ae), AW wald, MED wold
wal (walh) n m; wales (walges) pl
foreigner, stranger; Briton, Welshman
walnute n f walnut
wealh (we_al) ~hnutu, weales (a)
Lmn waelh, MED wale

1 2

wallen v s7; well wellen iwallen
boil, seethe, well, gush
wael n m ocean, deep pool
well n m; ~e n f well, fountain, spring, source
welm n m welling, surging, flood, turmoil
weallan (e_o e_o ea), wae_l, wiell (~a) ~e, wielm (ae)
PC1 weallan, wael, Orm wallenn, wel, welle, AW wallen weol(le) iweallet, welle, MED wallen, we_l, wel(le), walm(e) (e)

1 2

wan (wann~) adj
wan, ashen, colourless
wann (won)
SO wan wanne, Ch wan, MED wan

1 2

ware n m
ware, product, merchandise, article; shelter, protection, care
waru
Lmn ware, AW ware, MED ware
ward n f; m
protection, guard; guardian
foreward n condition, bargain, assurance
warden v w; warde guard, keep, watch
war adj wary, aware, shrewd
iwar adj vigilant, alert
waren v w beware, be wary; inhabit
ware n m/f; burh~ inhabitant, dweller
awaren v avoid
warn n f reluctance, repugnance
warnen v w warn, caution
wernen v w refuse, deny, reject, decline; impede, prevent, stint
wert`en war exp realise, perceive, discover, learn
weard fore~, ~ian, waer, warian, waru, a_waerian, wearn, warnian, wiernan
PC1 weard fore~, PC2 forewarde, war, Orm warr, Lmn foreward, warnede, werne, AW warde foreward, warden, wearnen, Ch war, MED ward ~en, warnen, wernen
~
water n nt
water
wad n nt ford, sea, ocean
wascen v s6 (7); wesc (o_) wescen (o_) iwascen wash
waete n m wetness, moisture
waeter waet(e)ru, waed, wasc`an s7 (o_ o_ [e_o] a), wae_ta
PC1 waeter watres, Orm waterr wattress, wasshenn wessh, Lmn water, wascen, SO water, AW wesch ~en, Ch wasshe wessh ~en wasschen, MED washen (washede/wosch/wesch)

1 2

~
we_ pron pl1
we
u_s (us) acc us
u_re gen our
wit dual we, we two
unk acc us, us two
unker gen our, our two
we_ u_s u_re, wit unc uncer
PC2 we ure, Orm we uss ure, witt unnc unnkerr, Lmn we us (ous) ure, wit unc, AW we us ure, unc, Owl unker, SO ous, MED wit unk
waede n f
garment, robe, clothing
waedes pl clothes
wae_d
Orm waede, Lmn wedes, Ch wede
n sg - item of clothing
waepen n nt
weapon, force
waepnen v w to arm
wae_pen wae_pnu, wae_pnan
Orm waepenn, waepnedd, Lmn waepen waepne, wepnen MED wepen ~es, wepnen

1 2

wey` n m
way, route, road
onwey`, awey` adv away
waeh n m; waeges wave, surf
waege n f scales, balance
iwaege n nt weight, measure
way`n n m carriage, wagon, cart, vehicle; car
allway`n n bus
wegen v s5 (w); wah waegen iwey`en (wey`de) carry, wear, support; weigh
wigg n nt horse, steed
weg` a_~ on~, wegan (waeg` wae_gon weg`en), wae_g, (g`e)wae_ge, waeg`(e)n, wicg
Orm wey`y`e awey`y`, way`y`n, Lmn weide, AW wei(y`)en wehed` iweiet, Ch wey (a) awey, wayn, MED weien (wey`en waiy`/waugh weien/iwey`e), wei (waege), wain
wey` interj
alas, oh
wey`la, wey`lawey` interj alas, wellaway
weg`-la_
Lmn wei wela waeilawaei, AW wei ~la ~lawei, Ch weylaway, MED wei ~la(wei)
ON vei; rel wa_
wel adv
well, very
wele n m wealth, prosperity
weliy` adj wealthy
wel wela welig`
PC2 wel, Orm wel, MED wel wele
Wendel n m
Vandal; wanderer
Wendelsae n m/f Mediterranean
Wendle, Wendelsae
MED Wandale
Germanic people who in the 5th c. AD ravaged Gaul and Spain, sacked Rome and settled in Africa
werk n m
work, act
werke adj hard, difficult
andwerk n matter, substance, material; cause
werkful adj industrious
wircen v w irr; wrohte (worhte) work, act, perform; fashion, construct
iwirht n f/nt deed, service; desert, merit
wrihte (wirhte) n author, artist, labourer, worker, maker, creator, craftsman, wright
wark n m pain, ache, affliction, suffering, anguish
warken v w intr ache, be in pain
endwark n pain in the backside
(g`e)weorc and~ ~e ~ful, wyrc`an (weorcan) worhte (wrohte), g`ewyrht wyrhta (wrihta), waerc (wraec) ~an
PC1 wircen, PC2 castelweorces, wrohte, Orm werrc werrkess, wirrkenn wrohhte, wrihhte, Lmn wurchen wrohte, AW warch, wruhte (ur), SO werk, Ch werk werkes, wirche (werke) wro(u)ghte, wrighte, MED werk (wark)
werpen v s3 tr/intr; warp wurpen iworpen
throw, cast, propel; rush, leap
awerpen v recover, cast off
andwerpen v design, devise
andwarp n m design
eftwerpen v relaunch
innenandwarp n interior design
forwerpen v reject, repudiate, drive off, throw away
onwerpen v throw aside; accuse; spin, make a web
weorpan (ea u o) on~ wierpan a_~, wearp
Orm werrpenn warrp worrpenn, Lmn worpen we(o)rped` warp wurpen, MED werpen aworpen
rel Du ontwerpen, G entwerfen

1 2

wert`en v s3; wart` wurt`en (d) iwort`en (d)
become, happen, arise
wird n f fate, destiny
to_wird n opportunity
wirdgang n m career
wirdwri_tere n m prophet, seer
iwirde n nt speech; edict, decree
forwert`en v perish, deteriorate
forwort`enlic adj perishable, feeble, ineffectual
werden v w injure, destroy
weort`an (u/y) for~ weort`et`/weort` weart` wurden (g`e)worden, wyrd (eo) to_~, g`ewyrde, forwordenlic, wierdan
PC1 weord`an ward` (ea) wurd`on, PC2 wart` wurt`en, Orm wurrt`en warrt` wurrt`enn (d) forrwurrt`ennlike, AW wurd`en iwurden, wurd`es, Ch wi(e)rdes, MED worthen, werd

1 2

wer n m
man, male
wereld n f world
wer, woruld (eo)
PC1 weoruld, Orm weress were, werelld (eo) Lmn weres, weor(e)ld, Ch werld, MED wer
ModE werewolf, L vir
weren v w
repel, defend, guard, agree by treaty; wear
werian werede
PC2 uuerrien, Orm werenn, Ch were
werden v w
spoil, injure, destroy
(g`e)wierdan
Orm werdenn werdet`t` (eo), MED werden

1 2

wered n nt
throng, troop, band, company
werod (weorud)
Lmn weored, AW weoredes, MED wered
wesen v irr
be
am pr sg1 am
art pr sg2 art
is pr sg3 is
sind, sinden, aren pr pl are
was pt sg 1/3 was
waeren pt pl were
si_, si_n sbj pr be
wes, weset` imp be
atwesen v attend
hu_ art t`u_ exp how are you
wesan eom (eam) eart is sind/sindon (aron) was wae_ron si_e si_en wes wesad` wesende nis; wes t`u_ ha_l
PC1 am sindon, PC2 is was waeron, Orm amm arrt iss arrn sinndenn wass waerenn si; namm niss narrt, Lmn si, AW am is aren; nis; wes hal, Owl art; nas nere, VH synd
contractions - ne + am, ne + was etc = nam nart nis nas naeren
west n/adj/adv; ~erne ~ward
west
westan adv from the west
west ~an ~erne ~ward
PC1 west, Orm wesst, Lmn west
wi_d adj; ~e adv
wide
wi_d
Orm wid, AW wid, MED wi_d(e)
wi_f n nt
woman, wife
wi_fman (wimman) woman
wi_f ~man (wimman/wi_man) ~men (wimmen/wi_men)
PC2 wif wive wimman wimmen, Orm wif ~e wimmaness wifmenn, Ch wyf wyve wyves womman wommen (wymmen)
~ ~
wiht n f/nt
creature, being, person
awiht, oht n, adv something, anything; aught, at all
nawiht, noht n, adv nothing, naught
unwiht n abomination, evil creature
wiht, a_wiht (a_ht/o_ht), na_ht (na_wiht/no_ht)
PC2 naht/noht, Orm wihht, ohht, nohht, AW wiht, oht, nocht/nawt, Ch wight, aught/o(u)ght, naught/no(u)ght
wiy` n nt
war, combat, battle
wi_gen v w fight
wige, wiy`end n m warrior
wi_g` ~end, wi_g~an ~ian, g`ewegen (ae ae_ e), wiga
Lmn wiy`e wi-aexe, Gaw wyy`e, Piers wye, MED wi_, wie (wighe)

1 2

wi_k n f/nt
village, community, region
daet`wi_k n abode of the dead
wi_c
Orm wic, MED wi_k(e)
wi_ke n f
office, function, duty, bailiwick
wi_ke n f
circewi_ke n sacristy, sacred vessels
horderwi_ke n treasury
wi_ce c`iric`e~ horder~
PC2 circe~wican horder~, Orm wikenn
wille n m
will, determination, purpose; delight, pleasure
iwill n nt wish, desire
willen v irr; wille wilt wil(l)e, wolde wish, want, be willing
nillen v irr not wish, be unwilling
willa (will) g`ewill willan wille wilt wil(l)e willat` wolde nyllan
PC1 wille, PC2 willen wolde, Orm wille wilenn wile wollde nollde, Lmn wille, AW wil(le) wulle wult wule wulled` walde walden unwil ~les, Owl wile nolde
wi_nn nt
wine
wi_n
Orm win, Lmn wine, Ch wyn
wi_nden v s3; wa_nd wu_nden iwu_nden
wind, wrap, revolve, twist, circle around
wa_nden v w turn aside, flinch, hesitate
wenden v w; wende turn, go, wend
awenden v change, translate, convert
windan (a u u) g`e~, wandian, wendan wende
Orm winnde wand wundenn, wendenn wennde wennd, Lmn winden wond wunden, wendest, awend, MED wonden (wande)
winter n nt; wintre pl
winter, year
winter wintru
PC2 winter wintre, Orm winnterr, Lmn winter wintere

1 2 3

wit (witt) n nt
wit, reason, understanding, intellect, sense, consciousness
witen v ptpr; wa_t wa_st, wiste iwist know, understand, be conscious, be aware, perceive, observe
niten v not know, be ignorant
bewiten v keep, care for, watch over, guard, administer, lead, protect, defend
wite (i~) n w accomplice; witness; councillor, adviser, sage, philosopher, wise man
wittiy` adj wise, sagacious, skilful; in one's right mind
witlaes adj ignorant, foolish, witless; mad
witnes n f testimony
wi_s adj wise
andwi_s adj expert, skilful
andwi_snes n f experience
wi_se n f, suff manner, fashion, way
wi_sen, wissen v w guide, show the way, direct, instruct
iwiss, wislic adj, interj trustworthy, certain, sure; indeed
to_ wisse (mid ~) adv completely, for certain of course
witt ~ig`, (g`e)wit~a ~an ~ena, witan be~ wa_t wa_st wiste, nytan, bewitian, wit~le_as ~nes, wi_s ~e ~ian ~a, andwi_s ~nes, g`e~wiss to_ ~um ~ian, wislic
PC1 witan wat wisten, Orm witt ~laes, wite, witenn wat wisstenn, wis ~e, wiss to ~e ~enn, Lmn wit, witen wat, wis ~e, wissien, AW wit, weote, witen wat wast wiste, wis, wissed`, Ch wit, wite(n) wo(o)t wo(o)st wiste, wis ~e, wisse
wi_ten v s1; wa_t witen iwiten
accuse, blame, impute, ascribe
wi_te n nt penalty, fine; punishment, retribution, torture; affliction, misery, distress
atwi_ten v admonish
edwi_ten v reproach, reprove, criticise
iwi_ten v look, behold, see; depart, go, die
witnen v w punish, chastise, torture
uten hort let us
wi_tan (a_ i i) aet~ ed~ g`e~, wi_te, witnian, uton
PC1 wite, Orm witenn wi'te, Lmn uten, AW witest edwiten wite, Ch wyten wite, MED wi_ten ed- wi_te
wit` (~er) prep
against, opposed, opposite, facing
wit`standen, wit`eren resist, withstand
wit`re n nt resistance
wit` ~er, wid`re, wid`erian
PC2 wit` (wid), Orm wit`t`, wit`t`renn, Lmn wid`, wid`ere
~

1 2

wo_d adj
mad, deranged, raging
wo_d
Orm wod, Lmn wod

1 2

Wo_den n m
Woden, Odin, chief Germanic god
Wo_dnesday` n Wednesday
Wo_den Wo_dnesdaeg`
PC1 Wodnesdei, Lmn Woden Wendesdei, AW Weodnesdei, MED Wednes-dai
word n nt
word
bi_word n adverb, proverb
bodeword n commandment, message, report
wordwinsum adj affable
word ~wynsum
PC1 worde, Orm word, Lmn word
~
worn n m
large amount, amount, number, quantity; troop, company, multitude, crowd, swarm
worn fele exp a great deal, many things
worn ~ fela
en ~ ~
wreken v s5 wrak wraeken iwreken; a~ i~
banish, expel, drive; avenge, punish; utter
wrake n f/nt exile, punishment, persecution, revenge; pain, suffering, distress, misery
wrecce n m; ~had n f, ~lic adj wretch; exile, adventurer
wrecan (ae ae_ e) a_~ g`e~, wraec`c`a wraeclic`, wracu wraec
PC1 wrecce, PC2 uurecce, Orm wrekenn, wrecche ~liy`, Lmn wreken a~, wrecche, wrake, AW wrake, Ch wreken wrak
wrey`en v w
accuse, impeach; divulge, reveal
wre_y`end n m accuser
forwre_y`en v accuse falsely, slander, libel, calumniate
wre_g`an for~ wreg`de
PC1 wraegde, PC1 uureide, Orm wrey`enn (wrey`h`enn), MED wreien
wri_ten v s1; wra_t writen iwriten
write
awri_ten v describe, compose
writ n nt; i~ document, writ, treatise
wri_tan (a_ i i) a_~, (g`e)writ ~u
PC1 writen, writ ~es, Orm writenn wrat writtenn, writt ~ess, MED wri_ten, writ
~
wude n m
wood, tree, copse, forest
wudu
PC1 wudes, Orm wude, Lmn wude
wuke n f
week
wukende n m weekend
wucu (wicu)
PC1 wuce, Orm wuke wukess, Lmn wike, Ch wowke/wyke (i/e), MED weke
~

1 2

wu_nd n f
wound, lesion, cut
wund
PC1 wundan, Orm wunde, Lmn wunde, Ch wounde
wunder n nt sg/pl; ~lic ~ful
wonder, marvel; atrocity
wundren v w intr be astonished, marvel
ofwundren, forwundren v tr astonish, amaze
wundor ~lic` ~ful, wundrian of~
PC2 wunder ~lice, ofuundred, Orm wunnder ~like wunndre, wunndren, forrwunndredd, Lmn wunder wunderes, wonddrede, AW wunder wundre wundres, wundrede
~
wurm (wirm) n m
serpent, snake; worm
wyrm (u)
Orm wurrm, Lmn wurm, AW wurm, SO worm, MED worm
en

1 2

wurt` n nt
worth, value, price, cost; importance
hu_ micel is t`e wurt` exp how much does it cost
wurt`en (wert`~) v w esteem, honour, worship, celebrate, exalt, praise; adorn
wurt`ing n f ornament
wurt`iy`, wurt`lic adj important
wurt`mint n adoration, worship
wurt`nes, wurt`scipe n honour
weort` (wurt`/wyrd`e) ~ian ~mynt ~sc`ipe ~lic`
PC2 wur(t)scipe, Orm wurrt`(e) ~minnt ~i, Lmn wurd`(e) vnword`
wurt` n. ransom; adj. worthy, entitled, worthwhile, valued, valuable, precious, honoured, honourable; wurt`en deck, enrich, reward
win (winn) n f
delight, pleasure, joy, rapture
winlic, winsum adj pleasant, delightful; joyful, winsome
wine n m friend, comrade, protector
iwin (winn) n nt gain, profit; toil, labour; conflict, strife, battle
winnen (i~) v s3; wan wunnen iwunnen win, gain, achieve, attain, conquer; toil, labour; struggle, strive, contend, resist, oppose
iwinne, wit`erwinne n m enemy, adversary, opponent, rival
wi_scen v w wish
wi_scendlic adj desirable
wenen v w accustom, habituate, inure, train; entertain, treat; wean
we_n n f expectation, belief
we_nen v w expect, believe, suppose, fancy
wunen v w dwell, inhabit, live; remain, stay
wuning v w dwelling, apartment
wune n m habit, custom, practice, rite
bewune adj accustomed, wont
iwunen v become accustomed
t`urhwunen v continue, keep on
iwunelic adj usual, customary, normal
wynn wyn~le_as ~lic` ~sum, wine ~mae_g`, winnan (a u u) winn winna (g`e~) wid`er~, wy_scan (i_) wy_scendlic, wenian (wennan), we_n ~an, wunian g`e~ t`urh~, wunung wuna bewuna, g`ewunelic`
PC1 gewinn, wunien, PC2 winnan wan, wende, Orm winnenn wann wunnenn, wunenn, wen wenenn, Lmn wun wunne (i), wine, iwin, AW wunie(n) wune, iwenet, Owl wune wunne, Ch wisshe, wone(n) woned/wont wone, wenen wende wen(e)d, MED win, wine, wishen (wiscen), wenen
me_ is awe_ne - it occurs to me
ifel adj/n nt
evil, bad, wretched; inferior, defective
ifelen v w ail
yfel ~ian
PC2 yfel/yuel(e), Orm ifell, MED ivel
i_t`e n f
wave, surge; sea
y_t`
Lmn vd`e, AW ut`en, MED i_the