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Early Middle English for today

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class-hopping strong verbs

OE verbs which belong to more than one class

Some OE verbs show forms consistent with two or more classes. This is evident in the following two contracted verbs:

te_on (ti_on) s1 tygen/togen p ptc
ti_gen s1 ti_ge ti_get` pr, ta_h tigen pt itigen p ptc
to accuse
te_on/ti_on inf ty_hst ti_ht` te_ot` pr te_o sbj pr sg te_ah tugon pt tuge sbj pt sg tygen pt pl;
MED te_n (tegen/teo) inf tyxste pr sg2 tiy`th pr sg3;
Note - the form tyxste is from 1450; the infinitive with <g> is from 1250; in OE this verb seems to have largely shifted to the conjugation of te_on s2 from te_ohan
OS af-ti_han, OHG zi_han, Goth teihan
t`e_on s1 t`igen/t`ogen p ptc
t`i_gen s1 t`i_ge t`i_get` pr, t`a_h t`igen pt it`igen p ptc
to thrive, flourish, prosper
t`e_on inf t`i_hd` pr sg3 t`e_ot`/t`i_gat` pr pl t`e_o sbj pr sg t`e_onde pr ptc t`a_h/t`e_ah t`igon/t`ugon pt t`igen/t`ogen p ptc;
MED the_n (thein) inf d`ihd` pr sg3; Ch then inf theech pr sg1; TH t`ied` pr sg3;
OLG/OS thi_han.

Note - this verb has a foot in two camps. Forms consistent with classes 1, 2 and class 3 are recorded.

A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary 1 indicates that (g`e)t`e_on belongs to both class 1 and class 3.

The Wiktionary page on t`e_on indicates class 3 above its conjugation, and gives the etymology as: "From an earlier (unattested) form *þīhan, from Proto-Germanic *þinhaną, from Proto-Indo-European *tenk-. Cognate with Old Saxon thīhan, Old Dutch thīon (Dutch gedijen), Old High German dīhan (German gedeihen), Gothic 𐌸𐌴𐌹𐌷𐌰𐌽 (þeihan)." The present tense forms are shown as: t`ig`e t`i_st t`i_ht` t`i_g t`i_gat`. The past tense forms are shown as: t`a_h t`ugon g`et`ogen/t`ig`en.

The Wiktionary page on Proto-Germanic *þinhaną, tells us that the verb is strong class 3 and that "After -inh- had become -į̄h-, this verb was shifted to the first strong class by analogy in most daughter languages, but not in Old English. Old English also shows a secondary formation with leveling of Verner's alternation, probably back-formed to the lexicalized original past participle ġeþungen (grown, thrived)." Apparently this Wiktionary information is taken from Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill.

The Cambridge Old English Reader 2 lists g`et`e_on in its glossary with the indication "I/II", i.e. strong classes 1 and 2.

  1. Clark Hall J.R., 4th edn (Cambridge, 1960)
  2. Richard Marsden, Cambridge University Press, 2004

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