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Early Middle English for today

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Additional eME forms

words which depart from standard OE forms & words of Old Norse, Middle Dutch and Old Low German origin

The following forms cannot be accounted for through the sound and spelling changes listed in table X. By the same token, forms that do follow the expected patterns of development from OE to ME, are not listed here. If you do happen to come across a form which strikes you as anomalous, you may find it in the footnotes (below) which outline some limited sound changes.

a
a, an; OE a_n > Orm a, an, PC2 a, Lmn a, an, AW a, an, Ch a, an
ae_fric
every, everyone; OE ae_fre adj + ae_lc` adj/pron > PC2 aeuric, AW eu(e)rich, Owl euerich, SO euerich, Ch everich
age
awe, terror; ON agi > lOE ag > Orm ay`h`efull, Ch awe
ay`
always; OE a_, ON ei > Orm ay`y`, Ch ay > eModE ay
als/alse
as; OE WS eallswa_, A all + swe_ > lOE *allswe > PC2 als(e), Orm alls, AW as(e), PH3 alse, Ch a(l)s
ana_n
immediately; so_ne ~ se - as soon as; OE on a_n > Orm anan, Lmn anan, Ch anoon > ModE anon
andswer~e, ~en
answer; OE andswar~u ~ian > Orm anndswer~e ~enn, Lmn andsweore, AW ondsweried`, Owl answere, Ch answere
a_niy`
any; OE ae_nig` > PC2 ani, PH3 oni(e), Ch any/ony
ay`ae_nes
against; OE ong`e_an, to_g`e_anes > PC2 agaenes/agenes, Orm (onn)y`aen, AW ay`ein, PH3 ay`enes, Ch age(y)ns/aye(y)ns
ba_t`e
both; OE beg`en, ba_; OE ba_ + t`a_ > Orm bat`e bat`re gen, PC2 bat`e, Ch bo(o)the
betwix
betwixt, between; OE betwux (betwix) > PC2 betwyx, Lmn bitwix, Ch betwixe
bi_
by; OE be (big`, bi_ - less common variants) > PC2 bi, PH3 bi
birien
to bury; OE birg`an (birig`an, birian - less common variants) > PC2 byrieden pt pl bebyried p ptc, Lmn iburied p ptc, AW iburiet p ptc
briht
bright; OE berht > Orm brihht, Lmn briht, AW briht, Owl briy`t, SO briy`t, Ch bright
briny`e
suit of armour; ON brynja > PC2 briniges pl, Lmn brunie, AW brunie
can
know how to/be acquainted with; OE cann > PC2 can, Ch can/kan
ce_se
cheese; OE ci_se (e_) > Ch cheese, MED che_se > ModE cheese
cest
chest; OE cist (e/y) > PC2 caeste dat., Ch cheste/chiste
chateren
to chatter; AW cheateren inf, Owl chaterest pr sg2 > ModE chatter
chusen
chose pt pl; OE ce_osan sv2 ce_as curon coren > PC2 cuson /tS/, Ch chose
chosen
chosen p ptc; OE coren (see previous) > PC2 cosan /tS/, Orm chosenn, PH3 ichosen, Ch chose(n)
clepen
to call/summon; OE clipian (e) > PC2 clepeden, Ch clepe(n)
cnoken
to knock; OE cnucian (o) > Ch knokke(n), MED knokke(n)
dae_rne
secret adj; OE dierne (ae) > Orm daerne, AW dearne
da_l
allotment, portion; OE dae_l > Orm dale, Lmn dale, AW dale
de_l
part, share; OE dae_l > Orm del, PC2 sumdel, Owl echdel, Ch de(e)l
note - this additional eME word is not used in englesaxe; da_l and dae_l are preferred as both have ModE reflexes - dole and deal respectively;
dwale
trickery; fool n; OE dwola > Orm dwallkennde, Ch dwale
e_fen
eve(ning); OE ae_fen (e_) > Orm efenn, AW euen, Owl eue, Ch even, MED e_ven
elf
elf; OE aelf ielfe pl > Ch elf, MED elf
ey`t`er
either, both; OE aeg`hwet`er (aeg`t`er) > Orm ey`y`t`err, Lmn eit`er, AW eid`er, Owl eit`er, Ch eyther, MED either
felage
fellow; ON fe-lagi > AW feolahe, Ch felawe, MED felaue
fihten
to fight; OE feohtan > Orm fihhtenn, Ch fighte(n)
fort`an
therefore, consequently; OE fort`ae_m, OE alt fort`an > PC1 fort`an, Lmn fort`an, Owl for t`an, MED for-than
fort`en
even, quite, exactly; OE furt`um > Orm forrt`enn, Lmn fort`e, (MED fort`en)
fra_
from; OE fram (fra), ON frá > Orm fra, PC2 fra(m), Ch fra(m) fro(m) > ModE from/fro
fray`nen
to ask; OE frig`nan (fraeg`ning) > Orm fray`y`nenn, Lmn fraeinien, Ch frayneth, Gaw frayned p ptc
gate
path, gait; ON gata, alla götu > Orm gate, AW allegate, SO algate, Ch algate(s)
gae_re
gear, equipment, apparel, behaviour; ON gervi, OE g`earwe > Orm gaeress pl, Lmn gaeren dat pl, Ch geere
gest
guest; OE g`iest > Orm gessthus, PC2 gestes, AW gest, Ch gest
gild
guild; OE g`eg`ield > MED gilda 1114 1180 1190 1240 1280 i.a. > ModE guild
ginnen
to begin; OE ong`innan > Orm gann pt sg3, Lmn gunnen pt pl, AW ginne sbj pr sg, Owl ginnet` pr sg3, SO gan gunne pt, Ch gynneth pr sg3 gan pt sg3
gle_
glee, music, entertainment; OE gli_w (gle_ow) n > Lmn gleo, AW gleo > ModE glee
grisliy`
grisly, horrible; OE grislic` > Orm grissliy`, Owl grisli/grislich, Ch grisly
haccen
hatch, incubate; OE *haeccan > Owl hay`te pt sg3, (MED hacchen)
hage
hag, witch, fury; OE haeg`-tes n f *hagan pl > AW haggen pl dat, (MED hagge)
hager
skillful; ON hagr > Orm hay`h`err, AW haher
hem
them; OE him (heom) > Orm hemm, PC2 heom, Owl heom/hom, PH3 heom, SO hem, Ch hem
here
their; OE hira or heora or hiera > PC2 here, Lmn heore, SO her, Ch her(e)/hir(e)
he_w
hue, likeness, form; OE hi_w (he_ow) > Orm hewe dat, Ch hew(e)
hirde
herdsman; OE hierde, A hiorde > Orm hirde, AW hirden pl dat, Ch hierde
hire
her; OE hire or hiere > PC2 hire, Orm hire, Ch hir(e)/her(e)
hwanne
when; OE hwonne > Orm whanne, Ch whan(ne) VH hwaenne, BH hwaenne
hwam
whom; OE hwae_m > Orm whamm, SO wham
hwa_s
whose; OE hwaes gen. of hwa_/hwaet > Orm whas /a:/, Ch whoos
I_
I ; OE ic` > PC2 I_, Ch I/y (ich); note - unstressed variant of ich in eME
ille
poor, bad; ON illr > Orm ille, Ch ill(e)
inne
within, inside; OE innan > PC2 inne(n), Orm inne, Ch inne
intil
unto, into; OE in + ON til > Orm inntill, PH3 intel
it
it; OE hit > PC2 it, Ch it (hyt)
key`ser
emperor, Caesar; OE ca_sere, ON keisari > Orm key`y`seress gen, Lmn keisere acc, AW keiser
la_ge
low; ON la_gr > Orm lah s lay`he w, Ch low(e)/lo(u)gh
lahen
to laugh; OE hliehhan (hlaehan), hleahtor > Orm lahhy`h`enn, AW laheth, Ch laughen
lasten
to last/endure; OE lae_stan > PC2 lastede, Orm lasstenn, Lmn lasten, SO last pr sg3, Ch laste(n)
left
left(-hand) adj; OE *lyft, lyfta_dl > Lmn leoft, TH left, Ch left > ModE left
lifen
to live; OE libban (lifian) > PC2 liuen, Ch live(n)
liy`en
to lie; OE licgan > PC2 lien, Ch lye(n)/ligge(n)
liht
light; OE le_oht (li_ht) > Orm lihht, Ch light
man
man, human being; OE mann > PC2 man, Ch man
madmes
treasure, ornaments; OE ma_d`um, ma_d`mes (ma_dm~) gen > Orm maddmess, Lmn madmes, MED madmes
mascen
to mash, reduce to pulp; to brew (ale); OE *ma_scan (ae_) inf > Orm meshe inf, MED mashen > ModE to mash
me
one, 'they' indef.pron.; OE man (me) > PC2 me, Owl me, Lmn me, Ch me (man/men)
ne_we
new; OE ni_we (ne_owe) > PC2 neuuae, Orm new, Ch new(e)
noht
nothing, not (at all); OE na_ht (na_wiht/no_ht) > PC2 noht/naht, Orm nohht, AW nocht, Ch naught/nought/no(g)ht
nowt`er
neither; OE na_hwaet`er (no_wt`er/na_wt`er) > PC2 nout`er, SO not`er, Ch nouther/nother;
(assimilation to either gave ModE neither)
oht
at all, anything; OE a_wiht (a_wuht/a_ht/aht/o_ht) > Orm ohht, Owl oy`t, Ch o(u)ght/aught > archaic ModE ought/aught
ot`er
or; OE od`d`e/o_d`er > PC2, Owl, AW, PH3, SO ot`er, Ch other/or
owt`er
any one, someone, either; OE a_hwaet`er (o_wt`er/a_wt`er) > PC2 ot`er, Ch o(u)ther
Note: given the potential for confusion with o_t`er and ot`er, I prefer to use ihwa_ for any one in my weblog
pot`eren
to stir, poke; OE *pod`eren (MED indicates OE probably had a form related to MDu poderen) > AW pead`ered` (a), pot`eret`, MED patheren > ModE pother
rae_diy`
ready; OE rae_de > Orm raediy`, Ch redy
rang, irungen
rang, rung; OE hringde pt sg3 g`ehringed p ptc > Lmn irungen p ptc, Ch rong pt sg3 > ModE rang, rung
rey`el
dress, garment; OE hraeg`l > PC1 reil, Owl rey`el
rubben
to rub; ON *rubba, MLG *rubben > robbe imp sg Recipe Painting(1) in Archaeol.J.1 (Hrl 2253) (1325), robby sbj pr sg SLeg.Geo.(1) (Corp-C 145) (1325), Ch rubbeth pr sg3, MED rubben > ModE rub
ruke
pile, heap, group of people; ON hruga/hruka > AW ruken, MED ruke > ModE ruck
saht
agreement, settlement; OE seht sehtan sehtlian > PC2 sahte saehte saehtlede, Orm sahhte sahhtlen, Lmn saeht, Ch saughte
say`en
to say; OE secgan > PC2 saein/saegen/sei, Ch seyn/seye(n)/sayn/saye
scapen
to create; OE scieppan > Orm shapet`t`, Ch shapen
sce_
she; OE he_o/hi_e > lOE SEMidl ?/hje:/ > ?/Ce:/ > PC2 scae, SO sche, Ch she/sche
sce_p
sheep; OE sce_ap > Orm shep, AW schep, Ch sheep
sculde
had to, was obliged to; OE sceolde (sc`olde) > PC2 sculde, AW schulde, SO schuld, Ch sholde/shulde
sae_gen
saw pt.pl.; OE WS sae_won A sae_gon > Orm saey`h`enn, Ch seyen/sawe
se
as, so; OE swe_ (variant of swa_) > PC2, AW, Orm se;
e.g. Orm sone anan se, forththrihht se - as; PC2 ware se, AW stinketh se swid`e feor - so
segen
seen pp.; OE WS sewen A segen > Orm sey`h`enn, 2KS i-seghe, Ch seyen/seen
se_l
happiness; OE WS sae_l A se_l > Orm, Lmn, Ch sel; AW, Lmn iseli
selcu_t`
rare, unusual; OE seldcu_t` > Orm sellcut`, Lmn selcut`, AW seolcud`e, MED selcouth
shit
shit, excrement; OE shitte > Owl schit-worde > ModE shit
silfer
silver; OE seolfor (i/io/u/y) > PC2 syluer nom sylure dat, SO silver
skateren
to scatter, squander; OE *scateran > PC2 scatered, Ch scatereth/scatered, MED scateren
skil
reason, grounds; ON skil > Orm skill, Ch skile/skyl/skylle
skraccen
to scratch; MDu or MLG or ON; MDu cratsen (e), MHG kratzen (e), OSw kratta > AW scrattes pr sg3, SO crached pr sg2 > ModE scratch; cp Sw skratta
skre_cen
to screech, shriek; OE alt scre_c`, ON skraetja > Owl scrichest pr sg2 > ModE screech
smirken
to smile; OE smearcian > StK smirkinde pr ptc > ModE smirk
starten
to start, leap up, rush; OE sturtende pr ptc > Owl start pr sg3 > ModE start
ste_le
steel; OE sty_le (e_) > Lmn stele pl, AW stel pl, Ch ste(e)l pl, MED ste_l(e)
sterne
stern; OE styrne (ie) > Owl sterne, Ch sterne pl, MED stern(e) > ModE stern
stubb
stump, stub; OE stybb (u) > Owl stubbe dat, SO stub, Ch stubbes pl, MED stub(be)
suster
sister; OE sweoster (e/i/u/y) > PC2 suster, Orm susstress pl, Lmn suster pl, AW sustren pl dat, Ch suster
til
till, to; OE oth; ON til - to > PC2 til, Orm till, Ch til(l)
t`an(ne)
than, then, when; OE t`onne (t`anne/t`on) > PC2 t`an(ne), Orm t`ann, Ch then/than(ne)
t`enen (~e/~es)
thence, from that place; OE t`anon (t`eonen) > PC1 t`enen, Lmn t`enene (t`ennen), (AW t`eonne, Owl t`enne, Ch thenne(s), MED thenne/thennes)
t`ey`
they; ON t`eir > Orm t`ey`y`, SO t`ai, Ch they
t`enken
to think; OE (g`e)t`enc`an, ON t`ekkja > Orm t`ennkenn, Ch thenke(n)/thenche(n)
t`es
therefore, because of that; OE t`aes (gen of se/t`aet) > Orm t`ess, Lmn t`es, StM t`enne, HM t`es, Owl t`es
t`oh
nevertheless, yet, though; OE t`e_ah, ON t`ó/*t`auh > PC2 t`oh, Orm t`ohh, Ch tho(u)gh/theigh;
(Note - the OE and ON forms are cognate)
t`ohhwet`ere
nevertheless, yet; t`oh + OE hwet`re > Orm t`ohhwhet`t`re, PC2 t`ohuuet`ere/t`othwet`ere; cf. modE whether
t`u_mbe
thumb; OE t`u_ma > PC2 t`umbes pl, Ayb t`oume, Ch thombe
trappe
trap; OE treppe (trappe) > Orm trapp, Ch trappe, MED trappe
tu_te
protrusion, hill, buttocks; lookout, tout; ON tuta, MDu tute > AW tutel, Ch toute, MED tout(e)
twiccen
to pull, jerk; OE twiccian *twic`c`an > SLL tuicche (1300), SO itwiy`t inf, MED twicchen > MED twitch
twiy`es
twice; OE tuwa (twig`ea) > Orm twiy`ess, AW twies, Ch twyes, MED twi_es
umbe
about/around; OE ymbe (umbe/embe) > Orm ummbe, PC2 um, Lmn umbe/embe, Piers um, NED umbe/embe
up
up; OE u_p uppe > Orm upp, PC2 up, Ch up adv uppe adj
upon
upon; OE uppan > Orm upponn, Ch upon/uppon
wandrat`
misery, adversity; ON vand-raed`i > Orm wandrat`, Lmn wandred`e, AW wontread`e
wicke
wicked, bad, harmful; OE wiccan gen? > PC2 wicci, Orm wicke, AW wicke, Ch wikke
wigglen
to wiggle, wobble; MDu wiggelen v w > AW wigled` pr sg3, (MED wigelen) > ModE wiggle
wereld
world; OE woruld > Orm werelld, Lmn weoreld, AW werlde dat, Ch werld
wrat`e
wrath, anger; OE wrae_t`t`u > Orm wrat`t`e, Ch wrathe > ModE wrath
wrecce
wretched/miserable; OE wraeclic` > PC2 wrecce, Owl wrecche, Ch wrecche(d)
wurm
serpent, worm; OE wyrm (u) > Orm wurm, SO worm, Ch worm
wurt`
worth n, worthy adj; OE weort` (u) > Orm wurrt`(e), Lmn wurd`(e), AW wurd`e, Ch worth
wrohte
worked, created, wrought; OE wyrc`an v w > AW wurchen; OE worhte/wrohte pt sg1/3 > PC2 wrohte, Orm wrohhte
y`e_de
went; OE (g`e)e_ode e_oden > Orm y`edenn, PC2 gaede, Ch yede(n)
y`e_ten
to convey, grant; ON ja_ta ja_tta > Orm y`atenn y`atte y`atedd, Lmn y`etten, AW y`etted` y`ette y`ettede
y`ow
you; OE WS e_ow, lOE N i_uh > Orm y`uw, SO y`ou, Ch you/yow
y`owre
your; OE WS e_ower (i_ower/i_owre), lOE N i_uer > Orm y`ure, SO y`our, Ch youre
y`ugelen
to yowl; OE *g`eogelian /ju:/ > StK y`uhelunge, Owl y`oy`elinge, MED yoy`elinge > ModE yowl

Sound changes with limited application (from table X)

ne_h, he_h, e_ge, e_k, ce_ke
OE e_a + h/g/c > eME e_ + h/g/k
ne_ah, he_ah, e_age, e_ac, c`e_ace > ne_h, he_h, e_ge, e_k, ce_ke (nigh, high, eye, -, cheek);
de_d, stre_t, sle_pen, gre_diy`, ne_del
OE ae_ > eME e_ where ModE has ee
dae_d, strae_t, slae_pan, grae_dig`, nae_dl > de_d, stre_t, sle_pen, gre_diy`, ne_del > deed, street, sleep, greedy, needle;